Ask any Baltic historian the question “When did the USSR leadership decide to join Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania to the Soviet Union?” and in response you will hear: August 23, 1939, the day of the conclusion of the Non-Aggression Pact with Germany. Attached to the treaty was a secret protocol on the delimitation of spheres of interest in Eastern Europe between the parties in the event of “territorial and political reorganization.” The document provided for the inclusion of Latvia, Estonia, Finland, Bessarabia and the eastern “regions that make up the Polish state” in the sphere of interests of the USSR. Lithuania and the western part of Poland were attributed to the sphere of German interests.
The will of the people. Riga, 1940 Photo: fotostrana.ru
Today in Lithuania they say: “The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact became the key to the Soviet occupation.” Arunas Bubnis, a member of the “International Commission for the Assessment of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes” (sic!), Says: “The secret protocols became a confirmation that Lithuania did not voluntarily become a part of the Soviet Union, but was forcibly incorporated into it. Therefore, the promulgation of these documents is very important both for the policy of Lithuania and for our historical consciousness ”…
The treaty did not become the “key of the occupation”. Photo: history.com
The non-aggression pact between Berlin and Moscow (“Molotov-Ribbentrop pact”) and everything that followed became the basis of the “policy of historical memory” in Lithuania. This policy “Makes people educate society about the consequences of the crimes of totalitarian regimes on the European continent”… None of the presidents of Lithuania deny himself the desire to inform that “The pact led to the outbreak of World War II and doomed half of Europe to decades of suffering”… All and sundry are broadcasting about this in Lithuania. This is an established stereotype and pattern of perception of the past.
“The treaty opened the way for the Second World War and for the occupation of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia by the Red Army in the summer of 1940. The consequences of this fact were evident for several decades after the end of the war. “, – the father of Lithuanian Russophobes Vytautas Landsbergis likes to repeat. And sends those who listen to him to Western historians of the Cold War, who argued that “The decision to abolish the independence of the Baltic countries in the Kremlin was made on August 23, 1939, or, in any case, no later than early October 1939”… It is dangerous to challenge this long-standing point of view: a prison term of up to 8 years is threatened “for denying the Soviet occupation.”
However, the truth cannot be hidden. “As it turned out later, this view was based on non-existent documents, such as, for example, the NKVD order No. 001123, allegedly signed on October 11, 1939, on organizing the deportation of a“ hostile element ”from the Baltic states. Contrary to the assertions of foreign historians, in this order neither deportation nor the Baltic states were mentioned at all “…
Historian A. Dyukov, who is feared in the Baltics. Photo: politobzor
At present, the director of the Historical Memory Foundation, Alexander Dyukov, is looking for an answer to one of the most important questions in Baltic history on the basis of documents from the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks. Documentation showthat neither in the fall of 1939, nor in May 1940, nor even at the beginning of June 1940, the decision to incorporate the Baltic into the USSR was not taken in the Kremlin. The issue was resolved only in late June – early July 1940.
Dyukov for Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia – persona non grata… He is the target of smear campaigns, he is deprived of the opportunity to personally work in the local archives. However, with the authentic documents from the archive of the President of the Russian Federation used in his work, one will either have to agree or refute these documents with reason. The second, in our opinion, is impossible.
The study has not yet been completed, but it has already been proven that the Soviet leadership did not intend to interfere in any way in the internal affairs of the three Baltic countries, even after the signing of an agreement with Berlin in the fall of 1939. The myth is crumbling about the preparation of the NKVD of the USSR, begun in 1939, for carrying out mop-up operations in the Baltic states, which they are trying to present there as “genocide” of Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians.
The opinion is widely cultivated in Lithuania that the “Soviet occupation” turned out to be “much more brutal” “Soft German”. The cynicism of such a comparison is obvious: Lithuania suffered more from the Nazi authorities than other former Soviet republics, having lost from July 1941 to July 1944 200 thousand Jewish citizens and about 70 thousand representatives of the titular nation. To the irrecoverable losses must be added about 300,000 killed Red Army prisoners and several thousand Red partisans.
So what does the official Vilnius mean by “brutality”? Local historians do not like to refer to the “Information about the inhabitants of the republic evicted for special settlement from the Lithuanian SSR to the northern and eastern regions of the USSR in 1941-1952.” This is a document of the KGB of the Lithuanian SSR No. С / 1 183 dated May 12, 1988. From it we learn that the first eviction was carried out on June 15-17, 1941. The anti-Soviet, socially dangerous and socially harmful element and members of their families were subjected to this measure: “12,562 people (7,439 families) were evicted. Among them: active members of bourgeois parties and participants in anti-Soviet, nationalist organizations (5536 people); former top officials of the criminal and political police, jailers (1582 people); former officers of the Lithuanian, tsarist and other white armies (221 people); former landowners, manufacturers, merchants and high-ranking officials of the bourgeois state apparatus (3165 people); refugees from Poland – former landowners, manufacturers, officers and officials, as well as persons who refused to receive Soviet citizenship for political reasons (1,530 people); prostitutes (449 people).
The aforementioned category of persons was subjected to eviction not only on formal grounds of social danger, but also in the presence of compromising materials on them in the state security bodies.
At the same time, the NKGB of the Lithuanian SSR arrested and sentenced 3,649 people for active anti-Soviet activities, many of whom at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War were released by the German authorities from serving their sentences “…
A total of 16,211 people were repressed. If we study the ethnic composition of the enemies of Soviet power, then the Poles will come first, then the Jews, the Russians, and only then the Lithuanians. With such statistics, it is impossible to talk about the “genocide” of the Lithuanians. Therefore, we came up with a way out. Every year on June 15, thousands of famous people in Lithuania alternately read out the names of those repressed during all the years of Soviet power. Lithuanian surnames sound like a refrain. The illusion of “genocide” is created.
The so-called June 1941 Uprising is another tool for manipulating memory. Members of the families of the commanders of the Red Army were torn apart by its participants in Kaunas, Alytus, Marijampole, Varena. Witnesses of those horrors claim that defenseless women and children were killed, worse than livestock. They gouged out their eyes, tore out their mouths, cut off their breasts, burned stars on their backs, ripped open the stomachs of pregnant women …
Throughout the territory of the then Lithuanian SSR, elements from among the ethnic Lithuanians, hostile to the new government, caught and killed single Red Army soldiers, destroyed small groups of retreating soldiers and commanders of the Red Army who had lost contact with their units. They were shot, hung, drowned, cut, chopped with axes, stabbed with pitchforks. And there are still living witnesses to that. Evidence of horrific facts remained: the dying farmers finished off and cooked jellied meat from human flesh, which they fed the pigs.
Statistics during the “Soviet occupation”
All this “policy of historical memory” in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, fearing the truth, bypasses. And if we weigh on one side of the scales the atrocities committed against the population, loyal to the new government, and on the other – fifteen thousand repressed? What will outweigh?
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