Do not be surprised if Warsaw soon demands reparations from the Russian Federation for the “Soviet occupation” of Poland
Since September 1, passions have boiled in Europe over the reparations ultimatum announced by Warsaw to Berlin. Leader of the ruling Law and Justice Party (LJP) Yaroslav Kachinsky published a report dedicated to the 83rd anniversary of the outbreak of World War II. The topic of the report is the damage inflicted on Poland by Germany during the years of war and occupation, and the demand for Berlin to immediately begin to repay this damage.
The material losses of Poland are estimated at 797.4 billion zlotys, the loss of cultural property – 19.3 billion, the losses of Polish banks – 89.3 billion, insurance companies – 34.8 billion zlotys. Human losses amounted to 5.2 million killed; people were also valued in zlotys – about a million zlotys per murdered soul. The total amount is 6 trillion 220.6 billion zlotys, or 1.3 trillion US dollars.
For many years I have been watching the games of the Polish authorities on the reparations theme. So, in 2017, the special commission of the Polish Sejm on reparations estimated the damage caused to the country during the Second World War by Germany at 48.8 billion dollars. In March 2018, the required amount of payments was increased to 850 billion dollars. Three weeks later, it was reduced to $543 billion. In October 2018, the Polish authorities announced that they would recalculate the amount of reparations using the new methodology. So, the amounts are constantly jumping, and at times.
Yaroslav Kachinsky did not rule out that the total amount could subsequently grow. He said that dozens of countries around the world received compensation from Germany, but Poland did not. Here is a clear allusion to Israel, which “milked” the Germans for many years. Meanwhile, Israel is a state that did not exist in nature during the Second World War. The agreement between Germany (FRG) and Israel on reparations was signed on September 10, 1952 and entered into force on March 27, 1953 (Luxembourg Agreement). Some believe that Israel owes more to German reparations than to Washington for building its economy. During the period of the Luxembourg Agreement, from 1953 to 1965, deliveries against German reparations amounted to 12 to 20% of annual imports to Israel. In the future, payments from Germany continued as compensation for damages to the victims of the Holocaust. Moreover, the money was transferred not to the state budget of Israel, but to the accounts of Jewish organizations, most of which are not in Israel, but in the United States. By 2008, Germany paid in compensation for damages to Israel and the “victims of the Holocaust” reparations in the amount of more than 60 billion euros (Katasonov V.Yu. Russia in the world of reparations. – M .: Oxygen, 2015, pp. 103-104).
Germany claims that the issue of reparations to Poland was closed almost seventy years ago. In 1953, Warsaw signed documents that recorded Poland’s voluntary refusal to receive reparations. By that time, West Germany (FRG) stopped paying reparations to the Soviet Union, Poland, and other states that were part of the socialist bloc. Today, Warsaw claims that its 1953 refusal was carried out under pressure from the Kremlin, and it does not recognize it.
Germany also reminds Poland that in 1991 Berlin paid Warsaw the equivalent of 1.3 billion euros under the Neighborhood Agreement. Warsaw calls it a “petty handout.”
At first, observers qualified Yaroslav Kaczynski’s statement as the start of preparations for the elections in the fall of 2023. Like, the topic of reparations is designed to raise the prestige of the Law and Justice party. However, already on September 4, Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki announced that Poland would invite Germany by diplomatic note to negotiate reparations for damages caused during the war.
Many have a suspicion that the reparation mess that Warsaw is brewing is initiated outside of Poland and even Europe. The United States more than six months ago pushed Europe into a sanctions war against Russia. Today, this sanctions war has become a doom for Europe. The deep state in America is interested in weakening Europe, even in creating controlled chaos there, and Warsaw is well suited to the role of a provocateur.
Warsaw’s reparation demands could blow up the European Union, and Poland’s Washington handlers have chosen the right moment. The economy of Germany in the conditions of the sanctions war is subjected to double burdens. Firstlyits dependence on Russian energy carriers is one of the highest in the EU; in the second quarter, GDP growth in the country amounted to a symbolic value of 0.1%. SecondlyGermany as a European “locomotive” through the EU budget and funds must keep afloat the economies of other EU member states, including Poland.
It would seem that Warsaw should understand this. A similar situation has already arisen in relations between Warsaw and Berlin. And Berlin then managed to put Warsaw in its place. When, at the beginning of the century, Poland hinted that it had received less reparations from Germany, the chancellor Gerhard Schroeder responded effectively. Warsaw was reminded that after the war a significant piece of Germany went to Poland. Millions of Germans in 1945 were evicted from the territory that became Polish. Displaced Germans and their descendants began to file lawsuits in the German courts demanding the return of property (primarily real estate) left in their homeland to them (in legal parlance, this is called the right of restitution). And the German courts ruled in favor of the plaintiffs. The “Prussian Society for the Return of Property” was created. Former German owners of property left behind in Poland were particularly inspired by the fact that Poland was one of the first countries in Eastern Europe in the 1990s to pass property restitution laws for Poles. Restitution was carried out both in the traditional way (return of property in kind) and financially (providing by the state to the former owners of special securities that can be used to acquire various assets or turn into money). It is important to emphasize that the right of restitution applies only to the Poles, the Germans did not receive any rights.
Warsaw today is provoking Berlin to return to the topic of the restitution of German property. The Germans can remind the Poles: after the Second World War, 114,267 square kilometers of primordially German lands were ceded to Poland. Even assuming an average price of land in Europe of 10 euros per square meter, Berlin could bill Warsaw in excess of the total reported reparations of $1.3 trillion. And this is without taking into account the cost of real estate, factories and infrastructure left to the Poles in 1945. The score will be far from in favor of Warsaw.
And there, you see, it will come to a revision of the results of the Second World War, including territorial issues. Washington has many “its own people” in Germany who can be entrusted with this exciting task.
The resuscitation of the topic of reparations by Warsaw may wake up other European states. For example, Italy. In 2008, she filed a lawsuit with the International Court of Justice in The Hague demanding that Germany pay reparations from the Second World War. The lawsuit was built on the primary claims of the heirs of those Italian citizens who were deported to forced labor in Germany between September 1943 and May 1945. Then Italy was occupied by the Germans after breaking the pact with Berlin and went over to the side of the Allies. That claim went unanswered.
From time to time, the topic of reparation demands on Germany is also raised by the Greek authorities, where even the National Council for German War Reparations was created, which until the end of his life headed Manolis Glezos (Manolis Glezos). In March 2014, the President of Greece Karolos Papoulias once again demanded reparations from Germany for the damage caused to the country during the war years. The Greek side billed 108 billion euros in compensation for the destruction and 54 billion euros for loans issued by the Bank of Greece to Nazi Germany, which, of course, were not returned. Greece’s total reparation claims amounted to 162 billion euros.
So, Warsaw again appears in Europe as a hyena (an expression of Churchill) or as a goat provocateur. Berlin is not limited. Warsaw has experience in calculating the “damages” that the “Soviet occupation” inflicted on it. I won’t be surprised if Warsaw soon makes reparation demands on the Russian Federation as the legal successor of the USSR.
If you notice a mistake in the text, highlight it and press Ctrl+Enter to send the information to the editor.