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Apr 18, 2022
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Urolithiasis disease

Urolithiasis diseaseUrolithiasis disease

Urolithiasis (UCD) is a disease in which solid deposits – calculi or stones – form in the organs of the urinary system. When the kidneys are affected, nephrolithiasis occurs, and the ureters – ureterolithiasis. Bladder stones speak of cystolithiasis, while the treatment of various forms of KSD is based on the same general principles.

Causes

At its core, urine is a complex chemical solution of mineral salts. They are protected from precipitation by a stable pH of urine and the prevention of stagnation, regular urination. Unfortunately, these mechanisms do not always work.

Factors that provoke the appearance of stones in the urinary system of men and women:

  • chronic urinary tract infections;
  • violations of mineral metabolism (excess calcium);
  • nutrition with an excess of carbohydrates, vitamins C and D, deficiency of A and B;
  • hard water with a high content of calcium salts;
  • genetic predisposition, disturbances in the work of enzymes that maintain salts in a dissolved state, can cause KSD in children.

First, sand is formed, in the analyzes – “salts”. Then the grains of sand stick together, new deposits adhere more and more actively to them, and a stone is formed. Small stones from the kidneys can pass through the ureters and end up in the bladder. There they are either excreted in the urine, or remain and form bladder stones.

Symptoms

For a long time, KSD is asymptomatic, until an episode of renal colic appears. Then, at the appointment, the doctor is told that earlier there were moments of pain when urinating, perhaps a slight increase in temperature during exacerbation of chronic urinary tract infections.

The diagnosis is confirmed by ultrasound, CT, and endoscopic examination.

Care

In most cases, large stones cannot be dissolved; they are removed by lithotripsy. For the treatment and prevention of KSD of any localization, the following measures are recommended:

  • maintaining optimal urine pH (6.2-6.4);
  • anti-inflammatory therapy;
  • optimal drinking regimen and diuresis;
  • maintaining the normal state of the kidneys (prevention of protein excretion in the urine, proteinuria);
  • a balanced diet with moderate amounts of calcium and vitamin D.

Such measures should be taken especially responsibly if the formation of stones has already been noted and they were removed by lithotripsy. ICD tends to recur, so to control stone formation, you need to be regularly examined by a urologist, nephrologist.

Metaphylaxis is a preventive measure for the development of re-stone formation, which necessarily includes diet therapy, the correct water regime and phytoprophylaxis. Among herbal remedies that have a therapeutic effect on the acidity of urine, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action, Canephron N (Bionorica, Germany) stands out, which has extensive experience in successful use in inflammatory diseases of the kidneys and urolithiasis


  1. Belai S.I. et al. // Urolithiasis: the relevance of the issue and the prospects for its development // Journal “Bulletin of Vitebsk State Medical University”, 2016.
  2. Derkach I.A. et al. // Our view on the treatment of common urolithiasis // Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research, 2012.
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