A disease such as sinusitis annually affects 10 million people in Russia alone. At the same time, people often end up in hospitals for his treatment. When people talk about sinusitis, they usually mean sinusitis as their most common variant.
This disease is familiar to many, everyone knows that it is difficult to treat it. In fact, the insidiousness of sinusitis is that it is not always as unambiguous as it might seem. For example, there are different types of it, which lead to different symptoms.
AiF.ru told about the gradation of sinusitis and what should be taken into account in this regard. candidate of medical sciences, otorhinolaryngologist of the highest category Vladimir Zaitsev…
Mechanics of development of sinusitis
The sinus itself is covered with a mucous membrane from the inside, which protects it and ensures normal functioning. Moreover, the volume of such a sinus, as noted by Vladimir Zaitsev, can be compared with a chicken egg: it is equal to 20 ml. There is also an anastomosis in the sinus – a special opening through which the sinus must be ventilated. “Normally, the anastomosis should provide ventilation of the sinus with air. There is also a hooked process in the nasal cavity. The air irrigates, washes and refreshes the sinus by analogy with airing a room from a window. But the air gets here not on inhalation, but on exhalation, when it is already warmed up and humidified to normal. On exhalation, through the hook-shaped process, it slips, swirls and, in the desired projection, enters the maxillary sinus, ”says Vladimir Zaitsev. And if this balance is disturbed, then sinusitis develops.
People in relation to many things, including diseases, act associatively, the ENT doctor notes. “Sinusitis for the patient is usually associated with the fact that green or yellow pus flows from the nose, more often even from one nostril, there is pain in the cheek area, and a puncture is used as a treatment. And there is usually also an equal sign: sinusitis – puncture, ”says Vladimir Zaitsev.
Types of problem
In fact, as the specialist notes, there are many types of sinusitis. So, for example, says the ENT doctor, it can be divided downstream into:
There is also a division in shape:
- Catarrhal, when the maxillary sinus mucosa is simply inflamed.
- Polypoid – a situation develops when a polyp has grown in the sinus and begins to provoke sinus inflammation. And here if there was no polyp, then there would be no sinusitis.
- Cystic, etc.
“There is a mix of conditions, for example, polypous-purulent, purulent-cystic, hypertrophic, hyperplastic, and so on,” says Vladimir Zaitsev. By the type of sinusitis, the doctor can determine how the sinus functioned and how much more difficult or easier the sinusitis is downstream.
“So, for example, if the sinusitis is hypertrophic, then the mucous membrane is thickened precisely against the background of inflammation, and it will return to normal when the inflammation is removed. If we are talking about hyperplastic, then there will be a build-up of the mucous membrane in volumes forever. Normally, the thickness of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus is 1 micron, that is, not thicker than a sheet of paper. With hyperplastic sinusitis, the thickness of the overgrown mucosa can be 1-2-3 centimeters, “Zaitsev notes.
This option leads to a deterioration in the sense of smell, an increase in fever, intoxication, etc. And then dangerous complications begin that can lead to anything, because a violation of nasal breathing negatively affects the quality of human life. And if sinusitis is hyperplastic or polypous, then this may indicate that the sinus was previously supplied with oxygen, and then suddenly, for various reasons, this process was disrupted, and against the background of stagnant phenomena, tissue began to grow.
Hypothermia is to blame
Catarrhal and purulent sinusitis develop against the background of hypothermia, the ENT specialist notes. Sometimes people get too cold because of the wrong clothes, for example, teenagers, when they ignore the parents’ request to dress warmly. Also, the problem of hypothermia may appear against the background of the absence of a scarf around the neck, gloves on hands, etc. in cold weather.
In addition, there are options for sinusitis that have a sports or industrial background. “It can be, for example, among hockey players who are constantly on the ice, and also athletes in all winter sports can be exposed to it: skiers, snowboarders. Sinusitis in swimmers who dive deep into the water on a regular basis. In addition, people working on the street are at risk: the same patrolmen, builders who are engaged in the construction of buildings, especially if you have to work at heights, ”says Vladimir Zaitsev.
The maxillary sinus, as noted by the ENT doctor, is the largest in volume, while the cheek region is located below, which is more prone to frostbite and hypothermia than the same forehead. The latter can be covered with a hat, but the cheeks cannot.
Unexpected pathogens and latent form
There is, for example, a latent form of sinusitis. When he, it would seem, is not, but he is. “Mild symptoms, there are no signs traditionally corresponding to the idea of sinusitis, etc. If it seems to a person that something is wrong, and even he has already encountered a similar problem before, it is worth visiting a doctor who will conduct an examination and, on its basis, will accurately determine whether there is sinusitis, ”says Vladimir Zaitsev.
There are different types of pathogens: fungi, bacteria. There are also viral variants. “Initially, such a variant as a viral one will be catarrhal: the bacterial environment is not yet involved, and only inflammation and, as a result, redness of the maxillary sinus mucosa indicate the development of the problem,” says Vladimir Zaitsev.
There may be allergic sinusitis. “The mechanism is simple. First, it starts flowing from the nose against the background of exposure to an allergen, the nose is stuffy, swelling, and immediately parallel to the eyes itch, watery. At the same time, a runny nose can be underestimated, as a result of which one condition will turn into another, ”the ENT doctor notes.
Sinusitis should be treated only under the supervision and supervision of a physician. He must conduct an examination, determine the type of problem and decide what may be the causative agent. Further, adequate treatment is already selected.