In order to look younger, you need to monitor the condition of your teeth. By a certain age, each person is faced with the need for prosthetics and needs to install dental crowns. This industry of dentistry has made significant progress over the past decades, which has influenced both the process itself, making it painless and fast, and the result. Crowns, which are now being installed by dentists, not only perform their functions perfectly, but also look much better than natural teeth.
In order for the prosthetics to be performed efficiently, it is necessary to first carry out a complete examination of the oral cavity. The more information the doctor receives before starting work, the better the result and the operating time of the structure will be. The prosthetist should inform the patient about the need for such an examination during the consultation.
Restoration of the dentition
The main achievements of dentistry are the methods of creating and installing crowns using absolutely biocompatible materials that never cause rejection or allergic reactions. Such materials do not emit harmful substances and do not oxidize for many years in the oral cavity.
Dental crowns are chosen in accordance with which part of the jaw the restoration will be carried out:
- Upper jaw. Prosthetics can be carried out both for aesthetic purposes, to improve the appearance of the smile zone, and for medical reasons. In the most difficult situations, crowns are placed after tooth extraction. In this case, it is often necessary to preliminarily carry out a sinus lift. This operation refers to the methods of bone grafting for displacement of the maxillary sinuses and filling the cavities with hard tissues.
- Chewing group. This arrangement requires particularly strong materials that do not grind or deform under constant stress. To restore the chewing function, cermets are best suited, which are distinguished by high performance characteristics.
- Smile zone. For this zone, the speed of work execution from beginning to full completion is very important so that the patient does not experience discomfort from communication in the intermediate stages. In this case, preference is most often given to ceramics without metal due to their appearance.
Computer Simulation (DSC)
To ensure that the manufacturing of restorative structures is perfect and fast, a new high-tech system has been developed that allows all stages of crown production to be carried out automatically. It is called DSC, which stands for dental computer system. Computer modeling requires specialized rather expensive equipment and software, which are available only in progressive and modern dental centers.
The process takes place in several stages:
- preparation of a tooth for prosthetics;
- an impression is taken using a three-dimensional laser-based scanning device;
- data is transmitted through the scanner to the computer;
- the information is processed by a special multilevel program that takes into account the state of the bone tissue, the location of the element being restored, etc .;
- a panoramic digital model of the jaw is built;
- the 3-D shape of the future tooth is modeled.
Based on the data obtained, a high-precision milling machine creates a crown. This takes place under the constant supervision of a prosthetics specialist. The material for the future tooth is heavy-duty ceramics.
Automated digital manufacturing eliminates the main negative aspects that accompany the creation of dentures. The influence of the human factor and possible errors with this method do not arise, and this leads to the fact that the finished products are ideally suited to the patient and fully coincide with his anatomical data. With a high precision of creation, the discomfort inherent in hand-made products does not arise, that is, the time to get used to after installation is practically reduced to zero.
Modern dentistry is not complete without high quality materials. In dental prosthetics, one such material is all-ceramic porcelain.
Porcelain crowns are made from press ceramics without the addition of metals. The technology is based on casting, followed by pressing and firing in furnaces at high temperatures. The material provides good strength, although there are stronger counterparts. But the main advantage of porcelain is that it looks exactly like natural bone tissue and even has a certain level of permeability to light rays, so other materials cannot be compared with it in terms of aesthetics.
The completely new technology of “Da Vinci” allows to make porcelain in appearance almost identical to natural enamel, without changing its characteristics throughout the entire service life. Another advantage of porcelain is its complete inertness, which makes it possible to install it even in those patients who are allergic to other types of prosthetic materials.
Among the disadvantages are relative fragility, incomplete adherence to the gingival margin and abrasive effect on adjacent teeth (they can damage the structure of adjacent teeth). But the overall high functionality and impressive cost classifies porcelain crowns as VIP dentistry. Despite this, the demand for them is increasing every year.
The installation technology implies the preliminary removal of a thin layer of native enamel, after which a shade is selected that is closest to the shade of the native enamel. The porcelain blank is filled with a mixture of zirconium oxide and amenable to vacuum firing at a temperature of 1350 ° C. This is followed by additional processing, staining and glazing. With all the necessary equipment within one dentistry, the entire process from the beginning to the completion of tooth restoration takes a couple of hours.
This technology is suitable for both one tooth and several adjacent elements in a row that require restoration. Strong periodontal disease and loose dental tissue are considered contraindications for it.
In addition to the classic porcelain prostheses, there are special types that provide extensive opportunities for improving the appearance:
- lumineers – ceramic tips that are used to restore the dentition for medical reasons or for aesthetic purposes;
- ultra-nirs – incredibly thin overlays that perfectly mask minor defects and lighten the color of the enamel;
- veneers are plates that replace the outer surface of the dentition.
Technologies that were previously used to achieve similar goals have invariably damaged dentin, but modern technologies have made it possible to achieve the effect in a gentle way. The service life of such linings is at least 10 years if handled correctly. If all the rules are followed, then the initial appearance does not change at all, the shade does not become darker, and dentin is protected from negative factors throughout the entire period of use.
All such porcelain onlays help a person get the perfect smile zone, and although this technology is expensive, it is increasingly being used in search of a perfect look.
Titanium is a material that has been used for the manufacture of orthodontic products not very long ago, but in a short time it managed to establish itself as one of the most successful. Previously, it was used only as a component giving the structure strength, but after the next revision, it was he who was preferred by leading specialists in orthodontics and dentistry. This is due to a number of characteristics:
- flawless design reliability;
- resistance to corrosive substances;
- hypoallergenic and the absence of a negative destructive effect on the cervical structures of the tooth;
- biocompatibility with any body tissues;
- absence of foreign taste in the mouth, typical for metal-containing structures;
- light specific gravity, due to which there is no pressure on soft tissues;
- permeability to X-rays, which allow visualization of caries in the image of the covered tooth.
One of the positive factors of titanium ceramics is the complete absence of contraindications. Titanium elements will protect the enamel from wear during prolonged wear, perform a supporting function, and protect teeth during prolonged use of corrective orthodontic devices, which have an abrasive and destructive effect.
The only drawback is that such crowns are installed only after completely cutting through the tooth surface, which does not allow them to be used for wisdom teeth and in children as fissure sealants.
Since the technology of inserting titanium-ceramic crowns is very complex, not every dentist can perform it with high quality. These nuances make the technique very expensive, so it is not yet common in mid-level dentistry.
The basis for the production of such crowns is an inorganic substance – sodium disilicate. It lends itself to the action of the highest temperature, followed by cooling to a normal level. This technology is called IPS e.max. Its main advantages are:
- ultra strength exceeding at least 3 times the indicators of all other technologies;
- durability of use – if such glass-ceramic orthodontic products are installed correctly, then their service life is the entire life of the patient;
- aesthetic characteristics – light transmittance and shades are so close to natural that only a specialist can establish an artificial origin during a professional examination;
- resistance to acids and alkalis, as well as to any aggressive environment;
- ease of use – no deposits and plaque form on glass ceramics, bacteria do not multiply;
- low invasiveness during installation – the method does not provide for grinding, which reduces the risk of infection.
The ideal looking dentition of Hollywood stars and TV presenters, which is striking in its durability and naturalness, is most often made of glass ceramics.
What type of crown to install in each case should be recommended by a qualified dentist. It is he who must evaluate all the parameters and indications of the patient and draw a conclusion about the load that will be exerted in the affected area. The most expensive option is not always the most appropriate for a particular situation. It must be remembered that living with a dental crown will take many years, so it must be not only beautiful and natural, but also comfortable enough to fully replace a person’s natural teeth.