Environmental problems in Russia are the object of close attention from the state and scientists. On the territory of one of the largest states in the world, there are many unique natural complexes that are of great importance not only for the country, but for the entire planet. The environmental situation in Russia is threatened by the same factors that all states face, and they are associated with the expansion of civilized spaces, the use of the planet’s resources by man, the development of industry and the problems of pollution.
Major environmental issues
The environmental problems most urgent for the country can be divided into the following groups:
Environmental problems of Russia
- industrial pollution of air, soil, water;
- changes in the natural landscape, deforestation;
- the complex negative impact on the environment of large cities;
- large volumes of waste incinerated and stored;
- consequences of man-made disasters.
Regarding all of the above factors, constant monitoring and supervision are carried out, measures are being developed to minimize harm to the environment. But the measures taken are not always enough to solve the problem completely.
Environmental pollution situation
A huge number of industrial enterprises operate on the territory of Russia, the activities of which adversely affect the state of not only the territories located in their vicinity, but can also affect the ecology of entire regions.
Any production can cause harm to the environment, but the following industries are the most problematic for the environmental situation:
Sources of environmental pollution in Russia
- extraction of minerals, oil;
- production of plastic and other building materials;
- military industrial enterprises.
Their emissions and waste are released into the air and water. Rivers and wind carry harmful substances over great distances. Falling out together with precipitation, they also poison the soil. As a result of the development of deposits, the natural landscape changes, dips and landslides are formed. All this has a negative impact not only on the state of the atmosphere, but also on the health of people living in areas affected by pollution. Soils on the territories of the deposits become unsuitable for agriculture and housing construction for a long time.
In large cities, the situation is exacerbated by exhaust emissions and increased electricity costs. This affects the state of the planet’s ozone layer. Recent studies show that excess of the standard for the content of exhaust gases in the air is observed in more than 40 cities of Russia.
Distribution of industrial emissions by federal districts of Russia
Environmental problems are also associated with waste disposal. Radioactive contamination of soils in landfills has a long-term character and even after their elimination, the land in this place is unusable for decades. This means that for life, a person needs more and more new areas.
Damage to the soil
Contamination of agricultural land with pesticides
For many years, agriculture has used fertilizers and pest control products that harm the environment. It also led to severe chemical poisoning of the soil, the effects of which have not yet been neutralized.
In Russia, industrial and agricultural enterprises and fuel producers have been faced with requirements in recent decades, forcing them to provide high-quality waste treatment and environmental safety of production. But these requirements are not always met in full.
The economic crisis is forcing organizations to save even more on environmental compliance costs. This is a serious environmental problem in modern Russia – to ensure the implementation of legislation in terms of environmental protection and to develop standards appropriate to the current situation.
Ecology of water resources, forests
Forests and reservoirs are invaluable natural treasures that allow you to maintain a natural balance, cleanse the atmosphere of harmful substances, and produce oxygen necessary for life.
Deforestation in Russia
A characteristic trend in recent years is the constant reduction of forest areas as a result of uncontrolled felling and logging. This means the destruction of protected areas where animals and birds live, unique species of plants and trees. The replenishment of the forest fund occurs at a much slower pace than its deforestation.
In addition to industrial use, forests are threatened by the expansion of settlements, the construction of transport highways. In many territories, which are unique natural complexes, protected areas have been created, which are prohibited to use. But this is not enough for environmental protection and for solving the ecological problem of deforestation.
Not only in Russia, but throughout the world, there is an acute issue with the state of water resources, especially fresh water bodies. Rivers and seas are the most convenient ways for businesses and cities to dispose of waste and wastewater. Strict requirements for their cleaning before dumping began to be imposed not so long ago. During this time, irreparable damage was caused. According to scientists, a little more than 10% of water bodies and rivers are conditionally clean in the country.
Ecology of water resources of Russia
Effects of pollution
River pollution destroys existing ecosystems, leads to the death of animals, fish, plants. For humans, this ecological situation threatens to turn into a tangible shortage of usable water resources. Already, in some important water bodies of Russia, the content of harmful substances, pesticides, heavy metals is much higher than the permissible standards, which makes the use of water from them for food dangerous.
All treatment measures cannot provide one hundred percent purification of highly polluted waters. The recognition of water bodies and rivers as protected is happening slowly and often the situation is already critical by the time environmentalists are seeking a ban on waste dumping.
Volga water pollution
The negative impact of exhaust gases in Russia
The ecological systems of large cities are characterized by an increased level of gas pollution, a lack of oxygen due to a small amount of greenery. Smoke and smog in Russian cities are not as catastrophic as in Chinese policies. But for the health of citizens living in them, the consequences in the form of diseases of the respiratory system, allergies and other consequences take place on a tangible scale. Bad air, food with pesticides cause many chronic diseases.
Measures to minimize urban environmental problems in Russia are being taken quite actively, but not in all cities this process is organized at the proper level. Large industrial centers and cities of Siberia and the Far East, where natural resources are extracted, are particularly affected.
Solving environmental problems
To solve environmental problems in Russia, various sets of measures are used:
Ways to Solve Environmental Problems in Russia
- recognition of lands and water bodies as protected areas, protection of them from pollution and use;
- restriction or prohibition on the use of certain types of natural resources: animals, plants, fish;
- stricter requirements for the disposal of chemical waste, purification of emitted gases, production products, wastewater;
- variable use of soils for agriculture with breaks for the restoration of individual areas, implementation of measures for their cleaning;
- control of the number of vehicles in cities and the quality of fuel.
In addition to state control, improving the situation requires a conscious attitude to natural resources on the part of all citizens of the country. Reasonable use of natural and energy resources, correct disposal of garbage, land clearing allow you to avoid the aggravation of the environment.