The exact cause of thyroid nodules is unknown, but there are some risk factors:
- genetic reasons – nodes often appear as a result of random mutations in genes;
- iodine deficiency – in conditions of a lack of this element, a compensatory increase in the glandular tissue of the organ occurs, which becomes the cause of the development of neoplasms;
- radiation exposure – increased radiation activity for the production of thyroid hormones, the organ absorbs radioactive iodine from the environment, which often leads to the appearance of malignant neoplasms;
- stress and strong feelings can “start” the pathological process in the thyroid gland;
- vascular pathologies – atherosclerosis, complications of diabetes mellitus;
According to WHO standards, the daily requirement for iodine is 150–250 mcg, and the average person in the Russian Federation receives about 40–80 mcg per day. In conditions of a deficiency of this element, the risk of developing not only nodes, but also other diseases of the thyroid gland, including oncopathologies, increases significantly.
According to Olga Derevyanko, there is often an opinion among patients that it is better to remove the node for preventive purposes, before they become malignant.
Thyroid nodules do not degenerate, so there is no need to remove benign nodules (when confirmed by a puncture biopsy).
According to the expert, there are several clear indications for surgery:
Nodules are malignant and are highly likely to be malignant. This is determined by biopsy results and / or blood calcitonin levels.
When the nodes change the level of hormones and are the cause of thyrotoxicosis. This state is called “functional autonomy”, but even so there is an alternative – radioiodine therapy).
Large size of education. In this case, the knot compresses the surrounding organs and tissues and interferes with their normal functioning.
Cosmetic defect. The operation is done at the request of the patient.
In other cases, the nodes of the thyroid gland do not require anything other than observation. There is no need to delete nodes “just in case”.