At any resort in the world, our compatriot can be unmistakably recognized by the shocking manner of foreigners jumping into a pool of ice water or from a pontoon into the sea.
Never do that! An overheated body is affected by a super-strong irritant – cold water. Even a trained heart can react to such an execution by stopping or a vegetative crisis, in which the vessels dilate, the blood drains from the head and faints occurs. There are waves all around, and even a short-term loss of consciousness leads to tragedy. Enter the water gradually, having previously doused yourself near the shore.
Reduced foot depth? Don’t panic! Because of this unexpected and big problem, many are going to the bottom. Three cramps-free limbs are enough to swim to the nearest buoy or stay on the surface until the contracted muscles release.
How can I help you. Try to stay on the water with the help of your hands, and with your good leg press firmly on the cramped foot and try to straighten it: this alone is enough to make everything go away.
• You can switch the nervous system to a painful stimulus: prick yourself with a pin, pinch, bite harder, and the spasm will release.
• If you entered the water only knee-deep or waist-deep, abruptly shift your body weight to your cramped leg, or pull its foot towards you with one hand, and knead your lower leg muscles with the other.
• This is not the first time this has happened? Swim in the shallows and do not dive: when the legs are up, the blood drains from them, the blood vessels narrow, and the bloodless muscles begin to constrict, especially in cold water.
DIVING THROUGH THE EARS
When diving with a mask, you face a problem: water is poured into the ear, but does not flow back. This is rather unpleasant: something is squishing all the time, the ear canal itches, voices come through like cotton wool.
How can I help you. If water gets into a healthy ear, there is no cause for concern. Tilt your head to the side you are laying and shake it a little or make a few jumps in place, and then blot the ear canal with a piece of cotton wool.
• Do not try to clear the ear canal with your finger – you can infect the ear and damage the protective layer of earwax with the beneficial microflora that lives in it. The result is irritation of the skin of the ear canal, and then its inflammation. It will spread to the eardrum and from there into the middle ear cavity – the so-called otitis media will develop.
• If the sea is choppy, refrain from swimming: turbid water containing sand, algae and microscopic fleas, if it gets into the ear, provokes inflammation of the middle ear.
• When the ear canal is partially closed by a sulfur plug, which has the unpleasant property of swelling from water, discomfort after bathing is ensured. Don’t try to remove it yourself – just push it deeper. Contact your ENT doctor: he will flush the ear canal with a special syringe, freeing the ear from wax.
In the list of summer seasonal male injuries, the first number is the typical beach diver’s injuries. To avoid them, do not jump into the water from a steep bank, a bridge, trees hanging over the water, especially if the place is not familiar to you, and the state, to put it mildly, is not too sober!
When the head hits the bottom, the person loses consciousness and drowns. In this case, all rescue measures – from removing the victim from the water to emptying his respiratory tract from the liquid – are given only 4-6 minutes! If someone in your company is in trouble, do the right thing.
How can I help you. Bend your left knee and place the victim with his stomach on top of him so that his head is below the rib cage.
• Press firmly with both hands on both halves of the chest and clear the airway of water.
• Clean algae and mucus from your mouth with a handkerchief.
• Examine the victim carefully. Bleeding from the ears and nose may indicate a fracture of the base of the skull. In the presence of these symptoms, a person cannot be tolerated, disturbed, or brought to consciousness. Call a doctor immediately!
A fracture of the spine is evidenced by severe back pain, numbness and paralysis of the body below the injury site. Check your pupils’ reaction to light: if they are constricting, this is a good sign. Is the pupillary reflex insignificant or completely absent? Invite medics.
How can I help you. Place the victim on a hard surface (a wide board, a sheet of plywood, a door removed from its hinges).
• Secure your neck with a rolled towel, shirt, and beach robe.
• To prevent traumatic shock, give the patient 1–2 tablets of any analgesic.
BLOOD FROM THE NOSE
Such bleeding often occurs in summer due to the drying effect of heat on the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, as well as if you dived too much and overheated in the sun.
By the way, men have such problems more often than women. If this happened not for the first time, measure your blood pressure – it is possible that you have increased it!
Your actions. Sit on a chair or sun lounger. In no case should you lie down on the sand or trestle bed! In a horizontal position, the blood rushes to the head, which means it will go even stronger, but it will drain along the back wall of the nasopharynx, and then it will seem that everything has passed, although it is not.
• Blow your nose into a disposable tissue paper. If blood clots remain in the nose, they will prevent the mucous membrane from shrinking, and without this, the bleeding will not stop.
• Put any vasoconstrictor solution like galazolin into the nose.
• Roll a cotton ball, soak it in 3% hydrogen peroxide solution and inject it into the front of your nose, then press your nostrils against your septum with your thumb. No peroxide on hand? Dissolve a tablespoon of lemon juice or a teaspoon of vinegar (not essences!) In a glass of cold boiled water. Pour some of the solution into the palm of your hand, inhale gently with your nose, and pinch your nostrils with your fingers for a minute.
• Place a wet handkerchief, a piece of ice wrapped in a plastic bag and a thin towel on the bridge of your nose.
• It would be nice to drink 3-5 tablets of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and calcium gluconate, or 2-3 tablespoons of a 10% solution of calcium chloride. They stop bleeding.
• If the bleeding is unilateral, raise your hand up on the side where the blood is flowing and with the other hand press your healthy nostril against the nasal septum.
MINI TEST FOR PEOPLE LIKELY TO CRASH
Legs usually cramp because of coffee, alcohol (even beer), taking certain drugs (in particular, diuretics)?
It would be nice to consult a surgeon or a vein specialist (phlebologist) – a cramp in the calf muscles that occurs on the beach can be one of the symptoms of developing varicose veins.
Are you sensitive, vulnerable, trembling all over during sleep or before falling asleep? Recently experienced a major shock?
Calf muscle cramps can be the result of emotional stress. Take papaverine (0.02-0.04 g at bedtime for 1-2 weeks), valerian root infusion (10-15 g per glass of boiling water in 3 divided doses during the day, course – up to 2 weeks) or 15-20 drops of valocordin (corvalola) before going to the beach and at night.
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