In Russia, state tests of the missile attack warning system (SPRN) have been completed The general designer of the missile attack warning system and the general director of the interstate joint-stock corporation Vympel, Sergei Boev, said on the air of the Zvezda TV channel that “At the end of December 2020, we have successfully completed state tests of the missile attack warning system in general and the command post in particular ”.
According to Boev, the main task that was solved was the processing of information and its transmission to higher command posts using new technologies and high-performance computing facilities. According to the TV channel, further work on the development of the early warning system will be directed to the creation of a continuous dual-band radar field.
Something to clarify here
Today, the ground echelon of an early warning missile system consisting of 10 radar stations forms a continuous peripheral radar field and provides guaranteed detection of attacking ballistic missiles in all strategic aerospace directions (SVKN) along all types of flight paths.
The creation of a continuous dual-band peripheral radar field continues due to the deployment of high-availability radar stations (VZG radar) in Russia.
Work is underway to create a dual-band radar complex (DRLK) VZG in the Vorkuta region and a high-potential VZG radar in the decimeter range (hereinafter – VZG-VP radar) in the Murmansk region with completion dates in 2021 and 2022, respectively. The introduction of these stations into the early warning system will ensure the completion of the rearmament of the early warning missile system on a new generation radar.
In the long term, until 2030, the development of the early warning system provides for the modernization of a number of VZG radars that are on alert in the Krasnodar Territory, the Irkutsk Region, and the creation in the Leningrad Region and the Far Eastern Federal District of new means with improved characteristics and noise immunity.
A little more about what is already there and what is being put into service
In 2022, the third stage of the creation of the Unified Space System (CES) will begin. By 2024, the group should fully deploy a high-orbit space reconnaissance system. This will ensure the fulfillment of tasks for global control of the surface of the entire globe, as well as “increasing the survivability of the combat control system in conditions of jamming.”
Russia is creating a unified Topaz system that makes it possible to control satellites in all orbits.
Russia has created from four Tundra-type satellites a basic space segment of the missile attack warning system (EWS), which allows continuous monitoring of US territory for ballistic missile launches.
Satellites “Tundra” “are equipped with infrared observation devices of the new generation, allowing with high accuracy to record missile launches against the background of the earth’s surface. Also, the devices are able to track the trajectories of ballistic missiles and automatically predict the impact zones of their warheads. Four” Tundras “from the EKS The domes revolve around the Earth in highly elliptical orbits with a maximum altitude of more than 35 thousand km.The trajectories of their flight are located at angles to each other, forming the so-called constellation over the Northern Hemisphere.
About the missile attack warning system
The first three Tundra satellites were launched in 2015, 2017 and 2019. In total, within the framework of the CEN “Kupol”, nine new devices should be used. The Kupol is intended to replace the Oko and Oko-1 early warning missile systems.
The Russian early warning system consists of two echelons: the space one, which currently includes four Tundra satellites, and the ground one, consisting of a network of Voronezh-type stations, covering all missile-hazardous directions with its radar field. The main purpose of the system is to detect and escort ballistic missiles fired at the territory of the Russian Federation or its allies as soon as possible.
The optical complex of the “Pitsel” outer space control system has been put on alert.
“The radar stations of high factory readiness of the missile attack warning system in the cities of Orsk, Barnaul, Yeniseysk, the optical complex of the space control system” Pitsel “, the special-purpose laser complex” Peresvet “, the first station of over-the-horizon detection were put into operation and put on alert.” Container-ZM “”, – reported the commander in chief of the Aerospace Forces Surovikin last summer.
According to him, more than 550 units of modern air defense weapons, more than 300 new and promising weapons, military and special equipment for the space forces have been delivered. “As a result, the share of modern weapons of the Aerospace Forces has already exceeded 70 percent.”
In November 2016, Colonel Andrey Ivashina, Deputy Commander of the Space Forces (KV) of the Aerospace Forces (VKS) of Russia, said that state tests of the Pitsel optical-electronic complex in the Altai Territory had been successfully carried out.
The outer space control system is an integral part of the aerospace defense of Russia, an information system based on specialized and interacting means, designed for continuous and global assessment of the space situation in peacetime and wartime.
Over-the-horizon detection stations
Currently, work has been organized to form three more of the same radar stations – Siberian, Eastern and Kaliningrad, which will make it possible to control the airspace from all strategic aerospace directions.
In December 2019, in Mordovia, the first over-the-horizon detection station “Container-ZM” took up combat duty. “This station conducts reconnaissance of the airspace over the states of Europe and the Middle East.
“Containers” work by receiving a signal reflected from the ionized layer of the atmosphere, which is located at altitudes from 60 km. This makes it possible to conduct radar at a distance of up to 3 thousand km and to detect targets that are in relation to the radar behind the bend of the earth’s surface, that is, beyond direct radio visibility.
In Russia, at the expense of the over-the-horizon “Container” stations, a continuous radar field will be created to detect maneuverable air targets by analogy with the network of missile attack warning system stations that track ballistic missile launches. “Containers” are planned to be installed in the future, including in the Arctic.
Radar for space monitoring
A specialized radar station (radar) has been deployed in the Moscow region as part of the development of the outer space control system (SKKP), now it is being tested. A multifunctional radio measuring complex is being tested in the Smolensk region. In the near future, it is planned to complete the deployment and commissioning of optical stations on the territory of the Republic of Crimea, in Sevastopol at Cape Khersones.
In 2020, the control panel of the outer space control system was modernized, which ensures the processing and analysis of all incoming information about the state of affairs in near-earth space.
Moscow’s missile defense system
In the near future, the anti-missile defense (ABM) system of Moscow and the Central Industrial Region will receive new radars and anti-missiles.
“Tests of the system (A-135) are currently being carried out, in the near future, the Aerospace Forces will receive an updated multifunctional radar station and modernized anti-missile missile defense systems,” the commander-in-chief of the Aerospace Forces said in August 20th. Several test launches of the new modernized anti-missile missile were carried out.
“Undoubtedly, one of the most important tasks facing defense industry enterprises is the modernization of the existing A-135 missile defense system of the city of Moscow on alert,” Surovikin noted.
According to him, the capabilities of the system’s firepower for the defense of the capital of Russia and the Moscow industrial region will be doubled, which has been repeatedly confirmed in preliminary tests of the anti-missile.
Radar station in Sevastopol
A meter-range radar of the missile attack warning system (SPRN) will start operating in Sevastopol in 2024.
“Given the relevance of the deployment of radar in the southwestern missile-hazardous direction, it was decided to create a VZG (high factory readiness) meter range radar in Sevastopol with a completion date in 2024,” Surovikin said.
Radar complex “Niobium”
The new Niobium radar system, capable of detecting hypersonic targets at long range, is being developed for the radio engineering forces.
“A new Niobium radar complex is being created for the radio engineering troops using a modern component base. The technical characteristics of the radar complex will exceed the capabilities of the Sky-M radar complex in service in terms of detection range for various types of aircraft, including hypersonic ones,” he said. Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Aerospace Forces, Colonel-General Surovikin.
The entry in Mordovia on combat alert of the over-the-horizon radar station ensured control of the airspace over the entire territory of Europe and the Middle East, which significantly increased the time for making a decision on response. “In addition, the deployment of radio technical troops on the islands and archipelagos of the Arctic Ocean has made it possible to significantly increase the radar field in the Arctic latitudes,” the commander-in-chief added.
The tests of the Blagovest military space complex were completed in September 2020.
Satellites (4 of them are needed in total) are designed for data transmission, to provide high-speed Internet access, telephone and video conferencing using the Ka- and Ku-bands.
The first “Blagovest” was launched from Baikonur on August 17, 2017. Space forces gave the satellite the name “Cosmos-2520”. The second apparatus of this series was launched from Baikonur on April 19, 2018, it was named “Cosmos-2526”. The third satellite, Blagovest, was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome on December 21, 2018, and was named Kosmos-2533. The fourth was in August last year.