We present a selection of twelve “strange” space objects artificially selected according to the principle of finding them one at a time in the constellations of the ecliptic - in parts of the sky through which the Sun passes during the annual Earth's motion in orbit. The separation of the zodiac constellations does not have a special astronomical meaning: the ecliptic plane does not coincide with the disk of the Milky Way, or with other conceivable structures outside the solar system. Therefore, such a selection principle is only a mnemonic ploy: the zodiac constellations are usually familiar to the reader more than others. The list includes heterogeneous objects and phenomena - galaxies, nebulae, stars with exoplanets, one black hole - which unite the fleur of the unusual.
1. Aries: the planet and its four suns
The planet is a gas giant with the designation 22 Ari Bb is in the star system 20 Arietis (Aries) in the distance 55 light years). The object is interesting because the star system is quadruple: two pairs of binary stars themselves rotate around a common center of mass, located at a distance of about 1280 a.u. (astronomical units) from each other (designation 22 Aries A, B, C, D). It is all the more surprising that at least one planet like the hot Jupiter rotates near one of these stars: gravitational systems with so many elements have problems with stability. Even a planet in a binary star system runs the risk of being thrown out of it, being chaotically pulled between stars or falling on one of them (although such exoplanets are open). At a minimum, this makes the development of life there problematic. However, the inhabitants 20 Ari Bb, if they existed, would be able to observe four Suns in the sky at once.
2. Taurus: Cemetery for the Supernova
The star of CW Leo is in the distance 87 light years (according to other sources - at least 90 light year, or even 310 light years .-- Note “XX 2 CENTURY »)) and refers to the "carbon" type of stars. It goes through the final stage of evolution of the red giant before dropping the outer shell (forming a planetary nebula) and turning into a white dwarf. The star’s feature is its high (32 km / s) the speed of movement relative to the local environment, so that when it forms a shock wave front visible in the picture (the speed of the Sun km / s). She is thus classified as a runaway star. The diameter of the "gas bubble" around the star is almost 3 light years - this is more than half the distance from the Sun to the nearest star.
6. Virgo: hat with a dust rim
Sombrero Galaxy - Object M 55 on distance 20 mln sw. It belongs to type S0, or "lenticular" (lenticular). A “bezel” is an area of interstellar dust in which active star formation occurs. Her best-known image is in the visible range from the Hubble telescope, but the galaxy is interesting in several spectral bands, emphasizing its various elements, including the active core, dust regions and regions of hot gas.
7. Libra: two phantom Earths
The “Snail” Nebula in 400 light years are the remnants of a supernova explosion in a dust cloud and one of the objects of this type closest to us. The material of such nebulae - dust, molecular and ionized gas - is organized into characteristic filamentary structures and manifests itself in different spectral ranges. The central part is still warmed up by the remnants of the star and is visible more in the pictures in visible and ultraviolet light.
. Pisces: Galaxy Mirror
85203) Galaxy M 29 - pseudocolors over the three infrared channels of the Spitzer space telescope (3.6, 5.8 and 8 microns). Image: Médéric Boquien / NASA / JPL-Caltech.
A galaxy from the Messier M catalog 30 on distance 23 million light years. She is also called the Phantom Galaxy. It is interesting in that its disk is turned to us with its front side, and it is arranged in the same way as our Milky Way, which we see from the edge and from the inside, and, essentially, in no way. Our ideas about the structure of our galaxy are largely based on the study of such nearby galaxies of spiral type.