Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that can lead to health problems. The appearance of excess weight is influenced by various factors, in particular, genetic characteristics, calorie content of food, metabolic rate and a person’s lifestyle. If the amount of nutrients entering the body with food exceeds the needs, the person develops obesity.
According to the World Health Organization, more than 39% of the world’s adult population is overweight. The accumulation of excess body weight is promoted by unhealthy diet, overeating, the need to eat at night, lack of physical activity and active modes of movement (cycling, walking), etc.
In Russia, according to Head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova, overweight is observed in 47.6% of men and 35.6% of women, and obesity is observed in 19% and 27.6% of men and women, respectively. According to the head of the department, obesity is most common in Oryol, Kurgan, Voronezh, Kemerovo, Kursk, Bryansk, Tula regions, the Altai Republic, Altai Territory and the Jewish Autonomous Region. According to Popova, the main cause of obesity among Russians is the consumption of more calories than necessary, the abuse of table salt, as well as exceeding the intake of sugar and fat.
To determine the degree of obesity, BMI – body mass index is used. You can calculate it in the following way: weight (in kg) divided by height squared (in meters). For example, a woman weighing 70 kg with a height of 170 cm has a body mass index: 70 / (1.7 * 1.7) = 24.2.
According to the definition of the World Health Organization, for adults, normal body weight is considered to be one in which BMI is in the range from 18.5 to 25. BMI from 25 to 29.9 indicates overweight, and if BMI is more than 30, then this is obesity.
Not in all cases, determining the degree of obesity using BMI will be correct. So, athletes with a large muscle mass, according to this classification, are overweight. Therefore, obesity can be measured by the waist and hips. According to Rospotrebnadzor, for women, the recommended waist circumference should be less than 88 cm, for men – less than 102 cm.
According to experts, the presence of excess weight is dangerous by the growth of chronic diseases, the appearance of various problems with the heart and blood vessels, as well as hypertension and diabetes. Overweight people are also at risk of severe complications from the new coronavirus infection.
How to determine the degree of obesity, see the infographic AiF.ru