Feb 17, 2021
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NATO headache: air defense missile system “Tor” moved from land to ships

In the photo: Tor-M2 anti-aircraft missile systems

In the photo: Tor-M2 anti-aircraft missile systems (Photo: Vitaly Nevar / TASS)

The fundamental difference between Russia and the United States in terms of the priority of introducing the most advanced weapons is that we have priority over ground technology. In the USA, it is maritime.

Another evidence of this is the completion of tests of the shipborne modification of the short-range air defense system “Tor-M2KM”, which was solemnly reported by RIA Novosti.

The first “Thor”, land-based, on a tracked chassis, appeared in 1986. It was developed by the Almaz-Antey concern. Three years later, a naval modification of the “Torah” – SAM “Kortik” was created. But after that a pause began, which ends only now. All this time, the designers have been improving the ground complex, releasing more and more new modifications. The latter was the Arctic version, based on a two-link tracked chassis, in which both the crew and the equipment are capable of operating at temperatures down to minus 50.

It should be said that Tor-M2KM is also not a purely marine complex. And the complex is modular, that is, universal. It can be installed even on the roof of a railway car. As applied to maritime affairs, in addition to combat ships, “Tor-M2KM” can be used on naval vessels, as well as on icebreakers and transports. Naturally, it needs to be integrated into the ship’s weapons control system.

But at the same time, as explained in the Ministry of Defense, it is not known when the modular “Torah” will enter the Navy. Because in the beginning it is necessary to saturate the Ground Forces with them. Perhaps this will happen in the second half of this decade. Which, in fact, did not need to be proved.

“Tor-M2KM” is designed for air and missile defense. It is capable of striking airplanes, helicopters, cruise missiles, drones, planning and free-falling bombs at any time of the day in difficult meteorological and jamming conditions.

Simultaneously detects up to 48 air targets, accompanies 10 of them, fires 4. The detection range is 32 km, the field of view in elevation is from 0 to 64 degrees.

The target destruction range is from 1 km to 16 km, the height is from 10 m to 10 km. The maximum speed of targets hit is 700 m / s. The reaction time from target detection to missile launch is 5-10 s.

The mass of the rocket is 165 kg, the weight of the high-explosive fragmentation warhead is 14.8 kg. Radio command targeting. The minimum number of vertical launch missiles is 4. Their build-up is a multiple of four.

The complex is supplied in the form of two modules – an automatic combat module (ABM), which includes everything: a detection radar, a tracking station, and a computerized control system. Module weight – 15 tons.

One of the important features of ABM is that it does not require an external power source. It has its own power source in the form of a gas turbine unit (GTU), which ensures the generation of electricity of the required parameters and power. The time for the GTA to enter the operating mode is no more than 60 seconds. The total time for bringing the ABM into combat readiness is no more than 3 minutes.

To operate the autonomous power supply system, the ABM has its own fuel tank. At the same time, ABM can be powered from an external electrical network.

The platform for placing the module must have an area of ​​at least 2.5 × 7 m and withstand a load of 20 tons.

The complex operates in a fully automatic mode. The operator selects one of 10 tracked targets and presses the “Start” button. SAM is automatically guided to the target, at the point of meeting of the missile and the target, a remote detonation of the missile warhead is performed, which ensures reliable defeat of an air target. The missile’s warhead contains fragments of a complex geometric shape, made of a special high-density alloy, which provides the highest penetrating ability of the fragment and almost completely eliminates the possibility of ricochet. The probability of hitting a target with one missile, according to the press service of the Almaz-Antey concern, is 0.98.

Of course, this complex is necessary for the fleet to equip new ships under construction with it from small displacement such as small missile ships and above. Well, the existing ones use the “Dagger” of the 1989 model, which is, in fact, the very first modification of the “Thor”. It is quite understandable that it has more modest characteristics. Thus, the reaction time is from 8 s to 24 s, while the Tor-M2KM has 5-10 s. The firing range is also smaller – 12 km, and especially the maximum interception height – 7 km. And also the degree of automation is less: if “Tor-M2KM” is served by 2 people, then the calculation of “Dagger” includes 8 people.

However, the old complex also has a significant advantage. Its radar is capable of operating in parallel with naval anti-aircraft artillery. This closes the 1.5 kilometer dead zone. Because the minimum missile launch range against low-flying targets (and all modern anti-ship missiles approach the ship at an altitude of up to 10 meters) is 1.5 km.

However, the promising short-range air defense system “Tor-M2KM”, fortunately, is not alone in the fleet. There is also the Pantsir-ME air defense missile system – an anti-aircraft missile-gun system created in the Tula Instrument Design Bureau. Moreover, it is not promising from the point of view of implementation in the fleet, but quite real – both tested and already being installed on Project 22800 Karakurt small missile ships.

Moreover, the land version has repeatedly demonstrated its excellent qualities in the same Syria when repelling attacks on the Russian base. Actually, they are reflected in the performance characteristics. The reaction time is 4-6 s, none of the complexes existing in the world has this. Range – 20 km, interception height – up to 15 km. The viewing sector in elevation is 0-82 degrees. The mass of the warhead of a bicaliber missile is 20 kg. The maximum speed of intercepted targets is 1000 m / s. In addition to the radar, there is also an optical radar station.

In the dead zone, up to 1.2 km, two six-barreled guns GSh-6-30 caliber 30 mm create a barrage of fire, firing 6000 shells per minute. Effective firing range – 4 km.

It is no coincidence that on our flagship, the Admiral Nakhimov heavy nuclear missile cruiser, during the modernization of the ZRAK, the Kortik was replaced by the Pantsir-ME. The flagship has the best.

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