The ideological experiments of Francis Fukuyama and the search for an alternative
One of the ideologists of modern radical liberalism, Francis Fukuyama, publicly buried the dreams of a global community and announced the need to introduce a new political model.
Back in 1989, as the Soviet Union was approaching its decline, Francis Fukuyama, a Japanese-American working in the US State Department, published in the journal national interest article “The End of History?”, which heralded the inevitable establishment throughout the world of a universal and uncontested liberal-democratic model. World history, according to Fukuyama, should have ended there.
Three years later, Fukuyama expanded the article into a book, The End of History and the Last Man. In it, he announced the planetary triumph of liberal democracy and proclaimed that ideological confrontations, philosophy and art are a thing of the past. Fukuyama’s “last”, or post-historical, man is a being who believes in nothing and recognizes nothing but his own comfort. Another of the properties of the “last man” is that he has lost the ability to experience reverence. According to Fukuyama, the sociocultural evolution of the species “reasonable person” should have ended at this point.
The harbinger of the “end of history” remained an unquestioned authority for the neo-liberal globalists of the 1990s. However, already in the early 2000s, it became clear that neoliberal prophecies were not coming true. The “illiberal” restoration of Russia began, the success of the Chinese political economy model became obvious, and the world of Islam was moving into increasingly radical opposition to the West. Ideological passions were also seething in Europe. Even like-minded liberals began to sarcastically call Fukuyama “Cassandra at fault.”
Even brighter the crisis of liberal globalism was outlined against the backdrop of recent Ukrainian events. A broad alliance of Western democracies and Bandera-style neo-Nazism, embroiled in hostility to Russia and everything Russian, led Fukuyama to a significant ideological shift. This is again an attempt to impose the idea of the end of historical development, but in the form national liberalism (another name for National Socialism in the 1930s).
In the room Foreign Affairs for May – June 2022, Fukuyama’s article “Own country. Liberalism needs a nation.” The person who once declared the “end of history” had come is now forced to admit that the very nature of liberalism is spiritually defective, it creates an ideological vacuum and splits the human community. On the Ukrainian example, Fukuyama has a hybrid of liberalism and nationalism (Nazism). He’s writing: “They are [украинцы] made it clear that … are ready to die for liberal ideals (???- S.K.)but only when these ideals are rooted in a country they can call their own.”.
Let’s not guess where an American Japanese living on the other side of the world discovered among neo-Banderists a willingness to die for “liberal ideals”. If earlier persecution and murder of journalists in Ukraine, imprisonment without trial or investigation on charges of high treason, torture of prisoners, suppression of any unanimity could not be noticed by the West, now the West, through the mouth of Fukuyama, proposes moral rehabilitation Ukrainian post-Maidan device.
They say that the goals of liberalism are “fully compatible with the world divided into nation-states”, and “it is not worth looking for a contradiction between liberal universalism and the need for nation-states.”
“The singer of the ‘end of history’ Fukuyama again changed his shoes and proposed to replace the historically collapsed globalism and neoliberalism with the introduction of the ideology of national liberalism. Read: a modern edition of fascism, where, under the guise of old mantras about liberalism, the need for systemic nationalism and a strong state is justified. But what about the neoliberal globalism that they have been feeding the rest of the world for the past 30 years? And that’s it, he’s no more. I died in a historical ditch. Now we have to invent such ideological constructs as national liberalism,” blogger Boris Rozhin comments on Fukuyama’s upgraded concept.
Well, Nazism and liberalism are not as far apart as some might think. Today, this is confirmed by what is happening in Ukraine and the general “Ukrainian haze” that has gripped the Western community. And only a cultural-historical alternative can save humanity from a new version of the “end of history”, which, it seems, Russia got a chance to form in 2022.
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