What can cause poisoning?
Mushroom picking error is the most common cause… It is quite easy, out of inexperience, to confuse a false chanterelle with the chanterelle of a “healthy person”, and take a satanic mushroom for something edible. In this case, the evening dinner is guaranteed to turn into poisoning – not fatal, but very unpleasant.
A much more negative scenario awaits the would-be mushroom picker, who mistakenly collected pale toadstools or confused the gallery bordered with mushrooms. These poisonous mushrooms contain amanitins – lethal toxins that cause poisoning with a very dangerous course. According to toxicologist Alexei Vodovozov, toadstools contain two sets of toxins, one of which is quick-acting and causes the classic symptoms of gastroenteritis, followed by a “light period” when a person feels healthy. At this time, the effects of the second type of amanitins accumulate, which stop protein metabolism in cells, and gradually one organ after another begins to fail.
That is why during the “quiet hunt” it is so important to include an inner skeptic, says Alexey Vodovozov.
“Most people don’t know mushrooms well, and what’s worse, they try to get this knowledge through applications on their smartphones. To know how a false chanterelle differs from a normal one, you need to at least see these two mushrooms together and consider the differences. Therefore, if you have even the slightest doubt about the edibility of the mushroom, do not take it. “
Poisoning with low-quality mushrooms. Even experienced mushroom pickers most often fall into this trap, who have lost their vigilance and have not scouted the situation where they are going with a basket. According to Vodovozov, the mycelium can spread for tens and hundreds of meters around and it absorbs everything that is in the surrounding area. If a mushroom plot is located near a landfill, a highway, or processed fuel is drained somewhere nearby, then even a strong boletus may contain harmful organic compounds and heavy metal salts. All of these can cause severe food poisoning.
It is also worth remembering that mushrooms are perishable foods, therefore old and wormy mushrooms are a favorable environment for the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria.
Botulism is a disease of canned food lovers… Alas, a jar of canned “whites”, including from a beloved grandmother, can cause severe and deadly poisoning. Even if the cap legs are well processed, but small particles of soil remain, they can contain the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, which, in conditions of low oxygen content, begin to produce botulinum toxins – one of the most dangerous substances with a lethal effect.
“Every year in Russia, up to 200 outbreaks of botulism are recorded, and most often this happens closer to the New Year holidays, when people begin to open summer harvests. But such poisoning can occur at any time of the year. “
Finally, there is simply individual intolerance.… It happens that they ate mushrooms with the whole company, but only one got poisoned. For some people, mushroom dishes are generally contraindicated, and they may not know about it.
Symptoms of mushroom poisoning
The first signs usually appear 1.5-2 hours after the mushroom dish is eaten, but sometimes much later – after 8-22 hours, which may indicate poisoning with poisonous mushrooms.
The most common symptoms include:
- nausea, vomiting;
- stomach ache;
- dizziness, headache;
- intense thirst;
- loss of consciousness;
- nausea, vomiting;
- profuse sweating and salivation;
- lowering blood pressure.
If poisoning occurs with a poison that affects the central nervous system, it is possible:
- double vision and “freezing” of facial expressions, the victim’s face becomes like a mask – these are the first signs of botulism;
- agitation, alertness, or lethargy and lethargy.
First aid – act immediately
If symptoms of mushroom poisoning appear, you need to do two things at once – call an ambulance and immediately start gastric lavage. Therefore, ideally, one of the helpers would run to call the doctors, and the other would help the victim.
How to do gastric lavage:
1. A large amount of warm water will be required, even from the tap… In no case is it cold, because it stimulates peristalsis, and then the water ball can “go” into the intestines.
In Soviet times, gastric lavage at home was done using a manganese solution, and it is better not to repeat this experience even if you have a stock at home. This is at least useless – the temperature of complete dissolution of manganese is 70-75 degrees, that is, boiling water is required, which you cannot pour to the victim. In addition, if the smallest crystals remain in the solution, when they get on the mucous membrane, they cause microscopic burns, which will only aggravate the human condition.
2… The poisoned person must drink a large amount of water at once.… The volume depends on age and body weight: a child can be enough one and a half to two glasses, a large man will need up to one and a half liters. Next, you need to stimulate vomiting – press two fingers to the root of the tongue.
3. The cycle “water – vomiting” must be repeated until the wash water is completely clean.
If the victim’s condition worsens or there is a suspicion that there was poisoning with poisonous mushrooms, it is better to collect the wash water in a basin – this may be needed for analyzes in the hospitalthis is.
4. In case of loss of consciousness of the victim, immediately stop washing… It is necessary to put the person in a stable safe position – on his side and bending his leg so that in case of involuntary vomiting he does not choke.
5. Was the lavage successful and did the victim feel better? Now you need to take any absorbent, and good old activated charcoal is perfect for this.
6. Be sure to wait for medical attention… It is very important to provide any fragments of eaten mushrooms for examination, even if it is just an uncleaned plate. Let’s not forget about the wash water. If there is a possibility that the poisoning was due to poisonous mushrooms, it is better to insist on hospitalization in an infectious diseases hospital.
If you spend a lot of time with your children at the dacha, regularly inspect the area for poisonous mushrooms.… Destroy them yourself and explain to the children not to try them.
Carefully study the area where you plan to pick mushrooms… These should be places as far as possible from the roadway, sewage and industrial facilities. Remember that even mushrooms harvested in a meadow or field can be dangerous – perhaps toxic waste is dumping somewhere nearby. Never pick mushrooms in city parks.
Collect only mushrooms that are common in your area and are well known – boletus, boletus, porcini, etc.…
If you are not good at mushrooms, it is better not to eat what you have collected at all.… Just buy them from the store, it is a guarantee of safety.
Don’t buy mushrooms from grandmothers near the metro… It is not at all a fact that they know mushrooms better than you.
Use salt, sugar and vinegar to preserve mushrooms – these are important to prevent botulism… You can learn more about the safety precautions when processing mushrooms for conservation here.
Is it possible to collect and eat fly agarics?
Some types of amanita are indeed edible, safe and can even be used for medicinal purposes, albeit mainly in alternative medicine, because there is still little evidence of their effectiveness.
But if you are not a mycologist and do not understand this, it is better not to carry out such experiments so that “folk healers” and advisers from the Internet do not tell you about it, warns Alexey Vodovozov.
“All these tips are purely sabotage, especially when they suggest treating fly agarics for cancer or psoriasis. Fly agarics are poisonous, and can cause a strong hallucinogenic effect. So far there have been no deaths after poisoning with fly agarics, but you are unlikely to want to be the first. “