Mikhail Gorbachev established democratic institutions in the USSR and Eastern Europe, peacefully ended the arms race, the Cold War and put an end to the bloodshed in Afghanistan, states, in particular, the British press. He opened the “Iron Curtain”, echoes French. He again made Germany united, the German media summarize. American publications also sing the praises of his faith in Western partners.
In general, the entire mainstream Western press agrees on one thing – in the person of the first and only president of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev, the planet has lost “a great peacemaker, without whom the world would be completely different.”
It is hard to disagree with this idea. Only one important reservation should be made – if it were not for the fatal mistakes of the foreign and domestic policy of the late Mikhail Sergeyevich, the current general geopolitical discord and chaos, perhaps, could have been happily avoided.
Gorbachev’s Mistake #1: “Beautiful Gesture”
Under the INF Treaty, signed in Washington on December 8, 1987, the Soviet Union destroyed 1,846 of these missiles. Among them were 654 RSD-10 Pioneer complexes (in the Western classification SS-20), 149 R-12 (SS-4) missiles, the same ones that occupied combat positions in Cuba during the Caribbean crisis, 6 R- 14 (SS-5), 80 RK-55 cruise missiles, as well as 718 operational-tactical missile systems OTRK-22 “Temp” (SS-12).
And the USSR also put 239 of the most advanced operational-tactical missile systems OTRK-23 “Oka” (SS-23) at that time under the knife. First Chief of the Missile Forces and Artillery of the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation, Colonel General Nikolay Dimidyuk called them “the most modern, universal complex for both nuclear and conventional fire destruction, which has no analogues in the world.” With the liquidation of these OTRKs, the Ground Forces lost not just a high-precision long-range weapon of destruction, but, in the unanimous opinion of the rocket men, “a toy that allowed them to hit a pretty penny.”
In fact, the OTRK-23 “Oka” did not fit the definition of “medium and shorter range missiles”, the INF deal was about missiles with a range of 500 to 5500 kilometers, while the “Oka” hit only 400. But Mikhail Gorbachev secretly from the military decided to just make a nice gesture towards the Americans, who were afraid of the Oka like fire.
What kind of humiliation and harassment on the part of the United States Russia had to go through, which only 30 years after the collapse of the USSR acquired a weapon of this level, it is unnecessary to explain now.
Gorbachev’s Mistake #2: “The Line of Betrayal”
Mikhail Gorbachev made another fatal concession to the United States in June 1990. Then the USSR donated to the United States 46.3 thousand square kilometers of its territory in the Bering Sea. As a result, the United States, without the slightest tension, in fact, in violation of the current legislation of the USSR and in contradiction to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, received not only the richest fishing areas of the Bering Sea, but also a significant part of the continental shelf, including promising areas of the Navarino and Aleutskoye oil and gas basins. » with large deposits of oil and natural gas with a total size of more than two Yaroslavl regions.
Formally, this delimitation treaty is signed by the then head of the USSR Foreign Ministry Eduard Shevardnadzebut it is clear that it could not have done without the sanction of Mikhail Sergeyevich. As a result of the fact that this “line of betrayal”, as experienced sailors call it, lay on the sea charts, the Soviet Union was deprived of the opportunity to catch 200 thousand tons of pollock annually.
This “gift” is now blocking the Northern Sea Route from the east, the revival of which, including for Eurasian transit cargo transportation, the Russian government has declared its strategic task. In addition, the United States can easily make a springboard for a military confrontation with Russia for Arctic resources from this area.
Gorbachev Mistake #3: “Karabakh Bomb”
The ongoing conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, which the “Western partners” are stubbornly trying to use to weaken Russia’s position in the international arena, initially had a long-standing character of ethnic confrontation. But the triggers of the conflict, which resulted in more than one bloody war, worked precisely under Gorbachev.
– In 1987, at one of the French cemeteries, the academician Aganbegyan and declares – now perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev and I discussed everything and decided to give Karabakh to Armenia. In the KGB, our hair stood on end at such words! – recalls a direct participant in the sad events, ex-head of the anti-terrorist unit of the KGB of the USSR and the FSB, retired colonel Vladimir Lutsenko. – The tragic “Sumgayit massacre” was initiated through provocateurs. On the Azerbaijani side there were nationalists – the People’s Front, and on the Armenian side – also nationalists, the so-called “Karabakh Committee”. And Gorbachev behaved colossally in general. Comes to Baku Ligachev and says – all the guys, we have made a decision, you are indivisible, no Karabakhs. At the same time, the General Secretary of the Central Committee arrives in Yerevan and declares – guys, now the ink on the paper will dry out, and I will bring you a decree on the annexation of Karabakh. Of course, we tried to do something in conjunction with the Azerbaijani KGB, but even then the party bodies gradually began to lose power, and in general, all bodies, as they say, fell down.
Russia is still raking the consequences of this decision. Not only in Armenia and Azerbaijan, but also in Turkey.
Gorbachev Mistake #4: “Yeltsin”
By the beginning of perestroika, none of the Soviet politicians had experience of a public struggle for power. And when the future first president of Russia Boris Yeltsin rode the populist wave and began to rapidly gain political points, Gorbachev and his entourage simply turned out to be unprepared for this, trying to use the old party methods – awkward denigrating publications in the press. But few believed her. Ugly picks at the Plenums of the Supreme Council, on the contrary, played into Yeltsin’s hands. As a result, Boris Nikolayevich became a “people’s hero” in the shortest possible time.
What it cost Russia, it is needless to remind – tanks in Moscow, the shooting of the White House, the appearance in big politics Boris Berezovskyan attempt to “take Grozny with the forces of one airborne regiment” with many years of bloody consequences for the country, “shock reforms”, “voucherization” of all of Russia Anatoly Chubaisnationwide disgrace during official visits, “legs Bush“. And in a separate line – current relations with the United States.
Gorbachev’s Mistake #5: “Simplicity is Worse than Theft”
Mikhail Gorbachev sincerely believed in the promises given to him by the United States not to expand NATO to the East. Former US Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, political scientist Paul Roberts considers this the most fatal mistake of the late president.
“Gorbachev’s mistake was a misunderstanding of Washington,” he stated. — The American president can make an agreement that his successor will refuse. Even if there are signed documents, and even in the absence of such, the corrupt Clinton regime was able to declare that agreements on the non-advancement of NATO to the borders of Russia never existed ”(quote from RIA Novosti).
It is the absence of guarantees of Russia’s security from the North Atlantic Alliance, which the current Russian president insisted on Vladimir Putinled to an armed conflict in Ukraine. Which, admitted the ex-president of the United States Donald Trumpthe current American administration is using it for its own purposes, provoking nothing less than a world war.