Material science - a direction that studies materials, technologies for their preparation, analyzes properties and operational characteristics. It is based on nanotechnology and 3D printing, and there is a demand for products in many areas of life.
Nanomedicine needs modern high-tech substances and components for growing organs, joints, and bones, so that transplantation can be abandoned in the future.
The aviation industry is in light and durable alloys that will significantly improve the aerodynamics and other technical characteristics of airplanes and other aircraft.
In the construction industry, buildings and structures made of concrete are already being printed on 3D printers. The construction boom is not only going through the construction industry. Innovative materials science technologies have allowed to create:
- eco-fuel for vehicles;
- biodegradable packaging materials;
- modern composites and polymers for the dental industry;
- special materials for spaceships - those that were considered fiction 20-30 years ago;
- advanced systems for digital and computer technology, increasing its functionality.
Material engineers are in demand in many industries, the greatest demand for qualified personnel is noted in the automotive industry, light industry, defense industry, energy, oil production, and astronautics.
People of this profession thoroughly know the properties, structure and other characteristics of existing raw materials, modernize and find additional applications for it.
The task of the material engineer is to create environmentally friendly products that the market needs. So, graduates of the departments of materials science and technology will not be left without work.
The training of future engineers involved in higher education. Training is conducted under the bachelor's and master's programs.
Admission to universities is possible only on the basis of complete secondary education (11 classes or college).
Applicants entering the specialty "Materials Science and Technology" (code 22.03.01) pass the entrance exams:
- mathematics (specialized subject);
- Russian language;
- physics, computer science or chemistry (at the choice of an educational institution);
- foreign language (not everywhere).
Forms of study:
The duration of training depends on the format and is 4-5 years. At the end of the undergraduate students can continue their studies in the magistracy. Masters training programs are designed for an average of 2 years.
Training areas and responsibilities
The described specialty involves the training of qualified personnel for:
- research and analytical work;
- design and technological and production activities;
- organization and management of core production.
The duties of certified materials scientists include:
- Preparation of work plans, engineering programs and recommendations that simplify the introduction of innovative technologies in the production process.
- Development and formulation of specific tasks for subordinate employees.
- Use, improvement, disposal of organic and inorganic materials.
- Creation of nanocoatings, polymer films, hybrid samples, their testing and taking notes of the test progress.
- Definition of tools and methods for diagnostics, quality control of raw materials, blanks, semi-finished products and finished products from it.
- Analysis of the results obtained during the testing process and processing of the results.
- Building a production chain and managing it.
- Maintenance of normative and technical documentation, preparation of reports.
Where to work?
An engineer in materials science and technology can work in government and commercial structures that are engaged in:
- defense products;
- IT and nanotechnology;
- development and implementation of automation systems;
- scientific research;
- laboratory tests of experimental samples.
A material scientist is a scientist, researcher and engineer in one person, so he can make a career in the scientific and industrial field. In the first case, career growth will consist in the preparation and defense of dissertations, obtaining academic degrees, all-Russian and international recognition.
In the second case, the graduate will begin to work as an ordinary specialist and step by step will grow up to the manager, the head of the department, and then to the head of the branch or enterprise.
Whom to work?
The main specialty is material science, but there are also related jobs that a graduate of a specialized university can take. It:
- nanoelectronics engineer;
- machine builder;
- metal specialist;
- designer of new alloys.
Every year, the list of offers is expanded, new promising professions appear, which labor market experts call the professions of the future.
The main duty of a material scientist is to study the structure and properties of materials and the further creation of durable, light, environmentally friendly modifications based on them.
In the last decade, the priority has been the creation of new commercial packaging that can be processed or decompose quickly and without consequences.
The second equally important area is the search for solutions that will significantly reduce the generation of household waste. Material scientists also carefully study the possibilities of using materials in new areas and for the implementation of new goals.
The specialist in nanoelectronics is focused on the creation of microelectronics, nanotechnology, microcircuits from innovative raw materials, and other developments in this direction.
From the name it is clear that a research engineer generates ideas, embodies them in new raw materials, products, studies its properties and participates in research.
Such work requires a technical mindset, perseverance, good knowledge of mathematics and mathematical modeling, the ability to draw up normative and technical documentation.
Another profession, the appearance of which labor market experts predict in 2020. The composer will mainly deal with composite materials, select the most optimal samples for the manufacture of parts, assemblies, spare parts and other products.
The choice of base material largely determines the method of production. The emphasis is on manufacturing products using 3D printing.
The specialist in materials in the field of mechanical engineering has a narrow specialization - he focuses on the selection and improvement of materials for the manufacture of parts, car bodies, and automation equipment.
His responsibilities include carrying out calculations, designing (if we are talking about the release of new machines and mechanisms), conducting field supervision at all stages of the project.
The main task of a metal engineer is design, creation, testing, revision and modernization of metal alloys, their further introduction into production.
Methods of manufacturing products from new alloys, taking into account their structure and other features, are also selected by metal experts.
Metal engineers work in large metallurgical concerns, as well as in specialized research institutes.
New alloy constructor
Currently, about 100 elements forming alloys are known. The designer studies the properties of each element and models new alloys, predicting their strength, elasticity, and thermal characteristics.
There may be hundreds of thousands of possible combinations and combinations. The construction of new multicomponent alloys makes it possible to obtain a material with specific properties that most fully corresponds to the operational parameters of the finished product.
The salary of specialists in materials science and materials technology depends on the place of work, position, experience. At the start of a career, university graduates can expect a salary of 25-30 thousand rubles. As you gain experience, it will increase to 50-60 thousand rubles.
Large holdings and concerns offer qualified employees twice as much wages.
In Russia, more than 60 higher education institutions are engaged in the training of materials scientists. Among them:
- National Research Technological University "MISiS".
- Russian University of Chemical Technology named after Mendeleev.
- Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI).
- The first Moscow State Medical University named after Sechenov.
- Moscow State Technical University named after Bauman.
- Ural Federal University.
- St. Petersburg Polytechnic University of Peter the Great.
- Belgorod State National Research University.
- Far Eastern Federal University.
- Kazan National Research Technological University.
- St. Petersburg Mining University.