Recently, the 125th anniversary of the birth of Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko was celebrated.
He received this high rank in May 1940.
THE RED ARMY IS STRONGER?
The future commander was born in the village of Furmanovka, Odessa region. In the winter of 1914 he was drafted into the army. He took part in the battles on the Southwestern and Western fronts as a machine gunner. He fought dashingly – he was awarded three St. George’s crosses. But he also had a cool character.
In 1917, a court-martial brought him to justice for a daring beating of an officer. Miraculously freed from the investigation, Tymoshenko participates in the suppression of the mutinies of Kornilov and Kaledin. And then he transferred to the Red Army. He commanded a platoon and squadron. At the head of a cavalry regiment, he participated in the defense of Tsaritsyn, where, according to some biographers of the military leader, he first came to Stalin’s field of vision.
In 1939, war began with Finland. On the eve of hostilities, the leader summoned the entire Soviet generals to the Kremlin and asked with eastern spontaneity: “Who is ready to take command?” There was an oppressive silence. And then Tymoshenko got up: “I hope I won’t let you down, Comrade Stalin” – “Okay, Comrade Tymoshenko. So we will decide. “
After the Finnish company, Tymoshenko was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union for “exemplary performance of command assignments and displayed courage and heroism.” He was appointed People’s Commissar of Defense of the USSR, became Marshal of the Soviet Union. Everything was very difficult in the army. Here are excerpts from a historical document – “Act on the acceptance of the USSR People’s Commissariat of Defense, comrade. Timoshenko S.K. from Comrade Voroshilova K.E. “
“The mobilization plan has been violated. The People’s Commissariat of Defense has no new plan. The inventory of liable military stocks has not been carried out since 1927. The shortage of command personnel in the army is 21 percent. to the number of employees. The quality of training of command personnel is low, especially at the platoon-company level. For the complete mobilization of the army in wartime, 290,000 reserve commanders are lacking … “.
Sometimes you think: well, would Hitler attack us when the army was headed by Klim Voroshilov, who really cared only about the cavalry? Blitzkrieg the possessed one could well and succeed. However, Semyon Konstantinovich had enough will, knowledge and skills to radically change the situation in the Red Army.
You can write a book about the Great Patriotic War of Marshal Tymoshenko. Actually, it has already been written by as many as three authors.
In September 1940, Tymoshenko wrote a memo addressed to Stalin and Molotov, in which he predicted with amazing accuracy how military operations would develop when Germany attacked the USSR, which he personally had no doubt about.
Unfortunately, this collective work is sustained in the spirit of the agitprop of the fifties, although the voluminous work was published in the so-called post-perestroika time. In it – kondo, burdensome and dense reasoning, sucked out of the finger anemic front-line collisions, and about the main thing – the Kharkov operation of 1942, or the Second Kharkov battle – said in an indistinct patter. Meanwhile, this offensive of the Soviet troops ended in encirclement and heavy losses. Due to the catastrophe near Kharkov, the rapid advance of the Germans with the subsequent exit to Stalingrad became possible.
And after this, Semyon Konstantinovich suffered another front-line tragedy. As part of the offensive, codenamed “Polar Star”, the North-Western Front, commanded by Timoshenko, conducted the Demyansk and Staraya Russian offensive operations. As a result, the losses of our troops amounted to about 280,000 killed and wounded, and the enemy’s Army Group North lost 78,115 people. Stalin no longer instructed Timoshenko to command the fronts.
In fairness, it should be noted that Semyon Konstantinovich, unlike, say, Baghramyan, never shifted his miscalculations onto other military leaders and never cowardly humiliated himself before Stalin, as the same Khrushchev did. He endured disgrace bravely, stoically, and until the end of the war, as a representative of the General Headquarters, very skillfully, benevolently and competently coordinated the actions of a number of fronts.
As for the business qualities of the marshal – I’m not talking for a figure of speech. “He had an unusual capacity for work,” wrote General of the Army A.I. Radzievsky. “Marshal Tymoshenko worked 18-19 hours a day, often staying in his office until the morning,” GK echoes. Zhukov. On another occasion, he, who is not very generous in praise, admitted: “Tymoshenko is an old and experienced military man, a persistent, strong-willed and educated man both tactically and operationally. In fact, he should have been Stalin’s deputy, not me. “
You cannot pass over in silence the family life of Marshal Tymoshenko. When Semyon was 26 years old, he naturally kidnapped a sixteen-year-old girl Katya. She gave birth to him in love and joy a daughter, who was also named Katerina. The girl was born on December 21, Stalin’s birthday. Years later, this will seem to her the greatest omen.
Very soon Tymoshenko found out that his wife was not faithful to him. Semyon Konstantinovich deleted the traitor from his life and did not remember her for 13 long years, until in 1937 he received the news: his daughter is in an orphanage in Rostov-on-Don. Brought her to Moscow. Katya had a marvelously quarrelsome, if not hysterical character. She had a truly manic desire to break out into the elite of society. Say, it’s not for nothing that I was born on the same day as the leader! And in the summer of 1945, Yekaterina Timoshenko recaptures Vasily Stalin from his lawful wife Galina Burdonskaya.
Konstantin Timoshenko recalled: “As a seventeen-year-old boy, I helped Vasily Stalin secretly from his father to take away his half-sister Ekaterina and marry her. Vasily arrived late in the evening and kidnapped his sister, and I was, as they say now, “on the naughty.” In the morning they returned already husband and wife. The father did not swear. Silently showed his daughter to the door. “
Not receiving the blessing of his father-in-law, Vasily Stalin and his young wife went to Germany. His children from his first marriage also lived there – Sasha and Nadia. Ekaterina also became close friends with Stalin’s eldest daughter Svetlana Alliluyeva, and named her daughter, born in 1947, in her honor. So the leader of the peoples had two Svetlans – a daughter and a granddaughter. And two years later and two Vasily – son and grandson. Catherine, in spite of her father, always boasted that she was a member of the leader’s family …
Tymoshenko passed away in the year of his 70th birthday. The fate of the word saved him from further tragic losses. Vasily Stalin divorced Catherine. Grandson Vasily Vasilyevich Stalin died from drugs. Then another grandson died, the full namesake of the marshal. Yekaterina Tymoshenko died tragically and under unclear circumstances in 1988. Exactly a year later, Ekaterina’s daughter Svetlana died, suffering from a severe mental disorder for many years …