Fedor Tyutchev is an outstanding Russian poet, whose works are an integral part of the literary world. Fedor wrote about everything: about nature, friendship, love, politics.
And today we decided to better acquaint you with the work of this outstanding person. In the article we have collected the most interesting facts about Tyutchev. We hope that our efforts were not in vain, and that the information provided by us will please not only children, but also adults.
For Dostoevsky, Fyodor Tyutchev was equated with Pushkin as a “poet-philosopher”. Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy once said that “you can’t live without Tyutchev.” The founder of early Slavophilism, Aleksey Stepanovich Khomyakov, once said that Tyutchev was the first Russian writer to see the difference between Russia and the West through the prism of religion. Ivan Sergeevich Aksakov, a 19th century Russian intellectual (and Tyutchev’s son-in-law), believed that in Tyutchev’s political letters, Europe first heard “a strong and masculine voice of Russian public opinion.”
Tyutchev, who spent most of his life in Germany as a diplomat and was married first to a German countess, and then (after her death) to a German baroness, was a real Russian patriot. He loved Russia and believed in its cultural and spiritual superiority. In his political essays, he fiercely opposed European critics of Russian absolutism and skillfully opposed the “Russophobic demagogy” of Western intellectuals and politicians.
In the 19th century, most wealthy families spoke French. Moreover, for many wealthy families, French was native, and they spoke it better than Russian. Tyutchev’s family was no exception. Since childhood, Fyodor’s family spoke and wrote in French. Thanks to this, from his youth he knew two languages: Russian and French, respectively.
Educated at home, he also studied German and Latin.
Fedor was married twice. The first wife was Countess Emilia Eleanor Sofia Louise Christina Botmer, who before Tyutchev was married to the Russian diplomat Alexander Khristoforovich Peterson. Eleanor and Fyodor were married in 1826. Eleanor was 3 years older than her lover. She gave birth to Tyutchev three girls: Anya, Dasha and Katya.
In 1833 he met the wealthy Baroness Ernestine von Pfeffel. Despite having children and a wife, he began to look after her.
In 1838, his wife died, and a year later he proposed to Ernestine. Ernestina gave birth to the poet three more children: Maria, Dmitry and Ivan.
Despite the fact that he was a wife to Ernestine, he fell in love with a young girl, Elena Aleksandrovna Denisieva, who bore him three illegitimate children: Elena, Fedor and Nikolai.
He also had another beloved, who appeared after the death of Elena Alexandrovna. This is Hortense Lapp. After his death, the poet bequeathed the pension not to his lawful wife, but to Hortense Lapp.
The poet wrote his first poem at the age of 11. This poem was called “Dear Daddy” and was dedicated to his father on his birthday. In total, he wrote more than 400 works, both in Russian and in French. The most fruitful years for the poet were the 1850s.
The poet himself did not consider himself a professional and wrote not for glory, but when he had inspiration. This creativity was for him nothing more than a hobby.
He also often forgot the texts of his poems, and almost never gave them names.
One of Tyutchev’s idols was Alexander Pushkin. In 1837, he even wrote a poem “To Pushkin’s Ode to Freedom”, dedicated to Alexander Sergeevich. Unfortunately, most likely, the poets never met.
During his lifetime, Tyutchev was not popular. Until 1836, when Pushkin published 16 Fyodor’s poems in the Sovremennik magazine, no one really knew about him. But even after the publication of his poems in Sovremennik, his fleeting glory quickly passed. For the second time, Tyutchev was seriously discussed only in 1854, when the poet was already 51 years old. This year Turgenev published an article in Sovremennik in which he said that Fyodor Tyutchev is one of the most remarkable poets. In the same year, the first collection of his poems was published.
He was an active participant in Belinsky’s narrow circle, which included almost all Westerners. In addition to Tyutchev and Belinsky himself, this circle was attended by Ivan Turgenev, Nikolai Nekrasov, Ivan Goncharov and others.
On the maternal side, he had a relationship with Leo Nikolaevich and Alexei Konstantinovich Tolstoy. His mother, Ekaterina Lvovna Tyutcheva, before her marriage bore the surname Tolstaya and came from the noble family of Tolstoy.
Fedor was not the only child in the family. He had four brothers and a sister. Three brothers died at a young age. The elder brother Nikolai Ivanovich became a colonel of the General Staff. The younger sister Daria Ivanovna married the Russian poet Nikolai Vasilyevich Sushkov.
At the end of 1872, the poet suffered an apoplectic stroke (stroke), as a result of which his left hand refused and his eyesight deteriorated. After the blow, his head began to hurt regularly. Less than a month later, in January 1873, Tyutchev went to his friends. On the street there was a second stroke, as a result of which his left side completely failed. Six months later, on July 15, 1873, he passed away.
On October 3, 1981, Lyudmila Georgievna Karachkina, a Soviet and Russian woman astronomer, while at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, discovered a new asteroid, which was named (9927) Tyutchev.
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