A person is so constructed that his whole life is the knowledge of something new. If we take Humanity as a whole, then its development is due to the constant striving of man to learn more and more about the world around him. Not so long ago, by earthly standards, the Earth was considered flat and stood on whales, and all the planets and the Sun revolved around it. Now even a child knows that the Earth is part of the solar system, the center of which is the sun, that it, in turn, is also part of the vast and little-known Cosmos. Literally every day, interesting facts about the Sun and the Solar System are replenished with all the new information that is interesting for children as well.
Devices to help explore the world of space
Modern science has sophisticated and ultra-precise instruments in its arsenal, and it is difficult for an uninformed person to imagine how they work, but all of them, one way or another, help to get to know the distant, and so close, cosmic world closer.
Devices to help scientists:
- a spectroscope – using it to study hot gases;
- spectrograph – with its help they record the radiation spectrum of the Sun and planets;
- spectrohelioscope – helps to learn about the chemicals in the Sun, and a spectrohelioscope with photographic equipment is already a spectroheliograph;
- coronagraph – photographs the sun’s crown;
- probes operating in space above the earth’s atmosphere;
- radio telescope – catches and studies radio waves emitted by space objects;
- powerful telescopes – allow you to see the surface of space bodies;
- spacecraft, interplanetary space stations and space observatories.
Scientific facts about the sun
How long the planets, the Earth, the Sun will exist, what their life cycle depends on – all this is the topic of many scientific studies. New scientific advances and facts make interesting speculations possible:
- One of the assumptions is that the Sun was formed 5 billion years ago due to the gravitational impact on the molecular hydrogen cloud, as a result of which it shrank. A large amount of hydrogen (700 billion tons per second) is consumed as a result of thermonuclear reactions and the temperature of the Sun rises. After a billion years, the star will become so bright that life on planet Earth will become impossible. Probably, it will remain only near the poles and at great sea depths in the form of some kind of organisms.
- The result of thermonuclear processes in the interior of the Sun is a contraction of the core, an increase in the shell, an increase in the intensity of the glow, which will increase by 40% after 3.5 billion years. This will make planet Earth as hot as Venus (500 ° C on the surface).
- The diameter of the Sun is gradually increasing due to the growth of its envelope, and after 7 billion years, the star will turn from a yellow dwarf into a red giant with a mass 200 times the current mass and will engulf the Earth.
- After about 20 billion years, a nebula will appear in place of the warm sun we are used to, centered around a hot white dwarf, which will fade away in a few billion years.
On a note! Sun Day is celebrated on May 3, a date proposed by the International Solar Energy Society.
Scientifically proven facts about the sun
Most of the information about the Sun that we use now, studying the star, is scientifically proven and substantiated. Among them there are interesting facts that are available for children.
Mass of the Sun
All cosmic bodies of the solar system are 0.2% of its mass, and the rest of the mass (99.8%) falls on the sun. In kilograms, the mass of the Sun will be expressed as a number with thirty zeros – 2 nonillion kg.
In comparison with the mass of the Sun, the Earth is negligible – its mass is 333,000 times less, that of Jupiter is 1048 times less, and that of Saturn is 3498 times less.
The only star in the solar system
It turns out that the Sun is not a planet – it is referred to as a star. In the solar system, this is the only star and it is made of gases. Most of it is hydrogen – 78%, then helium – 27%, and oxygen, carbon and other chemical elements – 2%.
The core of the Luminary is heated up to 15,000,000 ° С, and on the surface it is not so “hot” – + 6,000 ° С.
Which stars are brighter than the sun
When we look at the sun, it seems to us that it is the brightest and hottest in space. But this is a misleading idea, since it is closest to our planet, and the rest of the stars are billions of kilometers away from Earth. The brightest star visible at night in the sky is Sirius, followed by Canopus.
On a note! The sun appears to be yellow or orange, but in reality it is white. The human eye sees shades, not the actual color of the luminary. The reason is in the earth’s atmosphere, which scatters the light coming from the sun.
How the sun and solar system rotate
The planets and the Sun revolve around their axis, but the speed of rotation of the Sun in the equatorial region and at the poles is different, therefore, it makes a complete revolution in the equatorial region in 24.5 days, and in the polar regions – in 38 days.
The solar system itself also rotates (the axis of rotation is the center of the Milky Way) at a high speed – 828 km / h, and the entire orbit takes 225-250 million Earth years. The turnover is called the galactic year.
What are sunspots?
Quite often we hear about spots on the sun’s surface. They are called so because some areas are darker in color than the rest of the surface. The color changes due to the lower temperature in this place (it is about 1226 ° C lower) and due to fluctuations in the magnetic field. The spots are especially clearly visible when they occupy a large area or are combined into groups of several tens of spots.
There are two magnetic poles on Earth – north and south, so we can talk about the homogeneity of the planet’s magnetic field. It is constantly changing in the Sun, and magnetic fields with two, four and even eight poles are observed there.
Scientists hypothesize that the Earth’s poles changed orientation 800,000 years ago, and on the Sun they change with an interval of 11 years.
The Earth is 150,000,000 km away from the Sun, and sunlight covers this distance in 8 minutes.
Reference! The distance of 150 million km is an average indicator, since the Earth’s orbit is elongated. The planet is closer to the luminary in January, and the distance reaches its maximum in July (a month after the summer solstice).
For comparison, sunlight will reach the star Proxima Centauri in 4.2 years, and to Pluto – in 5.5 hours.
Gravity (gravity) is the property of bodies to attract other bodies to themselves. Thanks to gravity, the Earth is attracted to the Sun and is held in orbit, rather than flying into space, it attracts the air we breathe, the water and you and me.
Interesting fact! Due to the large mass of the star, the gravity on the Sun is 28 times greater than that of the Earth, and a person weighing 100 kg will weigh 2800 kg there!
The sun is the cause of the northern lights
In the northern hemisphere, an atmospheric phenomenon is often observed, which is called the “northern lights”, and in astronomy it is called “solar wind”. A beautiful multi-colored glow is observed in the sky at this moment.
Radiance appears when a large release of charged particles and heat occurs on the Sun. Some of them reflect the Earth’s magnetic field, and particles penetrating into the atmosphere interact with gas molecules in its composition. The result of interaction in the sky is a very beautiful, mesmerizing look, radiance.
Unusual and interesting about the planets of the solar system
A lot of interesting and unusual things can be reported about each of the planets of the solar system, and this information is constantly replenished, updated.
Is there water on Pluto?
The latest scientific information says about the discovery of a liquid ocean in the bowels of Pluto at a depth of 300 km. Its depth in some places reaches 100 km.
The temperature on the surface is minus (-220 ° C) and, it would seem, the ocean should freeze, but this is not observed, on the contrary, it is expanding. This interesting fact is explained by the release of a large amount of heat as a result of reactions in the nucleus.
Was Venus inhabited?
Some researchers have made the assumption that once on the planet Venus there were completely different conditions than now, and some form of life could exist there.
At this time, there are no organisms on the planet due to the following factors:
- high surface temperature – up to + 500 ° С;
- a large amount of sulfuric acid is present in the atmospheric layers;
- a very powerful electric field – the power is 5 times that of the earth.
The moon is a “battery” for the Earth
Life on Earth is largely due to the presence of a magnetic field that protects it from cosmic radiation and the core – a source of heat and energy along with the Sun. The core is made of metal and is in a liquid state.
Why the nucleus moves and does not cool down – scientists are looking for an answer to this question. There is an assumption that the lunar orbit is a kind of “battery” and supplier of kinetic energy for the Earth’s core.
Large and small asteroids
NASA, engaged in observing outer space, counts large and small space objects.
At the moment, several tens of thousands of asteroids have been discovered, the sizes of which reach 100-1000m.
Every week in 2016-2018. there were messages about the discovery of 20-40 objects.
Not only Saturn has rings
Not so long ago, it was believed that only Saturn has formations in the form of rings, consisting of ice particles and small stones. It turns out that they are observed in Neptune, Jupiter, Uranus, but it is difficult to observe them, since the composition of the rings is cosmic dust.
Why Pluto is not a planet
Previously, Pluto was considered one of the planets of the solar system, but was excluded from their number, considering that its size is small for a planet, and the force of gravity is not so great. From now on, it is a Kuyper Belt Object.
As the Cosmos is immense, so are the boundaries of cognition. Modern science finds more and more unusual and interesting facts about the Sun, about the solar system, about the Galactic worlds.