Questions related to the appearance of man on planet Earth, with the emergence of planets in the solar system have always worried, worried and will excite the minds of the curious. How did the planets and the sun appear? What was the impetus for their appearance? Modern science does not stand still, and interesting facts about planets and Space excite humanity, forcing them to ask even more questions.
Universe and hypotheses about it
The concept "Universe" includes the energy of space and all visible and invisible bodies.
How and where did the universe come from? There is no answer, but there are several assumptions (hypotheses) about the reasons for its appearance:
- Big Bang. According to this theory, once there was nothing - all Matter under enormous pressure was compressed into a very small volume. Gradually, the pressure reached critical values and, having warmed up as much as possible, the matter began to expand. The explosion took place 12-15 billion years ago. As a result, the clots of energy scattered, and radioactive particles were formed from the matter. Those, in turn, gave impetus to the formation of atoms, then various objects in space. The universe continues to expand and what will follow? The question remains unanswered.
- Big bounce. This assumption is directly opposite to the previous one and assumes that the origin of the Universe is associated with compression ("rebound"), and not with an explosion. The cosmos is constantly reborn - it contracts, then expands and, according to this model, after the expansion that is now taking place, compression should occur. But how this will happen - the theory does not give an answer.
- Divine intervention. According to this theory, the Universe could not have appeared without the participation of the Creator - everything is thought out so rationally and logically. The theory is not scientific, but it has a right to exist.
Modern science is looking for confirmation of these hypotheses, but at the moment they remain assumptions, and knowledge about the solar system accumulates more and more interesting scientific facts about cosmic bodies, planets, outer space.
Unusual and surprising about planets
Outer space is an abyss of the mysterious, unknown and interesting. Rapidly developing, science makes it possible to learn more and more about it.
The planet visible without instruments is at a great distance from the Earth and it is difficult to explore it, but research is still being carried out, replenishing information about it with new facts.
Mercury, according to one of the assumptions, was a satellite of Venus, but due to some cataclysm it broke away from its attraction and became an independent planet - the closest to the Luminary.
A day on Mercury is 59 days, and a year is 88 days. If we compare this with earthly days and years, we get something difficult to imagine for our earthly time.
Information! From Mercury, you can see the movement of the solar disk in the opposite direction - this is due to the large difference between the speeds of rotation around the axis and movement in orbit. The planet orbits at the highest speed of all the planets in the solar group, and its orbit is the most elongated.
On Earth, we are used to seeing one sunset and one sunrise, and twice, or even three times, it can be seen on Mercury.
It would seem that due to the small distance to the Sun, the planet should have positive temperatures, but the difference between daytime and nighttime indicators is huge - during the day the surface heats up to + 430 ° С, and at night it cools down to -180 ° С.
Interesting Mercury Facts:
- the planet was first mentioned in manuscripts 3000 BC. e .;
- in diameter, Mercury has only 5,000 km, and in terms of density it is the second after the Earth;
- the main element of a small layer of the atmosphere is helium;
- the energy received from the Sun is almost 7 times more than the Earth receives;
- research vehicles in the vicinity of Mercury were 2 times;
- since 2004 the Messenger probe has been operating in the planet's orbital space;
- there is an assumption that the core with a mass of 4/5 of the mass of the planet consists of iron;
- there is no change of seasons on the planet.
You can see bright Venus at sunset, and the "Evening Star" (as it is sometimes called) lights up for only 2 hours. By cosmic standards, it is not far from the Earth - only 108 million kilometers. Its orbit, interestingly, is located inside the earth's orbit, and the planet moves in the opposite direction to the clockwise direction. The rise is therefore observed in the west and not in the east.
Unusual and interesting facts about the planet Venus:
- the movement around the axis is very slow and it turns out that the length of the day and the length of the year (243 and 224, 7 earth days, respectively) are almost the same;
- the sizes of Venus and the Earth are approximately the same;
- when moving to Venus, it is possible to equip settlements at an altitude of 100 km from the surface - there the conditions (temperature, pressure, gravity) are similar to those on Earth;
- for the first time in 1970, a Soviet probe landed on the planet, stayed there for only 23 minutes, but managed to transmit some information, and another device - Venera-13 - withstood on a hot surface longer - 127 minutes;
- there are no conditions for the existence of any living organisms - the temperature on the surface is about 470 ° C, and the pressure is 90 times higher than at the bottom of the earth's sea;
- more than 1600 volcanoes have been discovered on the surface, and many of them are active.
Assumption! After 5 billion years, the sun will run out of helium and hydrogen, and it expands to become a red giant, engulfing the nearest planets.
The Earth is the only cosmic body on which there are various forms of life. Her age is approximately 4 540 million. years old. Together with Mercury, Venus and Mars, it is part of the terrestrial group of planets.
There are many interesting facts about our planet and it has been studied more than other cosmic bodies, but a person wants to know as much as possible about his place of residence.
Amazing About Planet Earth:
- the speed of movement of the "blue planet" in orbit - 108,000 km / h;
- water occupies 71% of the planet's surface and most of it is oceans, but only 5% of them have been explored, but even this small part is home to about 200 thousand marine species;
- huge reserves of fresh water (68%) are frozen in glaciers and at the poles;
- The moon is a natural satellite of the Earth, which is the cause of the ebb and flow, and there is an opinion that it once separated from the Earth as a result of its collision with a cosmic body;
- about 40,000 tons of dust from space falls to the Earth's surface every year;
- the water column hides many secrets and interesting phenomena - at a depth of 11 km (the Martian Trench) there is life, the existence of which could be confirmed by researchers (only three people) who have been there;
- most of all meteorites are found in Antarctica - they are clearly visible on the white surface and more of them fall there.
An unusual fact! In the tropics of Peru, there is an amazing place - the Shanay-timpishka river, where the water almost boils, reaching a temperature of 92 ° C.
The planet Mars, next to the Earth, with two moons Deimos and Phobos, is located at a distance of 228,000,000 million km from the Sun. She owes her name to the god of war among the Romans - Mars. The color of the planet, like the color of blood, is red, therefore it is also called the Red Planet. The color is explained by the presence of iron oxides in the atmosphere.
Interesting facts about Mars are attractive to children, because it is often found in the plots of films and cartoons, in children's works, and the words "Martians", "Martian" are always heard. The story about the planet Mars can be summarized in the form of brief information about it:
- his age is estimated at 4.5 billion. years old;
- the size of Mars is much smaller than the Earth - the diameter is 6800 km, which is 2 times less than the Earth's, the mass is 10% of the Earth's mass (6.4169x1023kg and 5, 9722x1024kg, respectively), and the volume is such that the six planets Mars will fill the volume of one planet Earth;
- a revolution around the Sun takes 687 Earth days - this is the length of a year, and the length of a day is 24 hours 40 minutes;
- at midday at the equator, the temperature rises to + 30 ° C, at night it drops to -80 ° C, and near the poles to -143 ° C, and in winter about 20% of the air freezes;
- due to the large temperature difference between day and night, air movement occurs at high speeds (tornado);
- the force of gravity there is less - with a weight of 100 kg on Earth, a person on Mars will weigh only 38 kg, and a high jump will exceed the earthly one by 3 times (this interesting fact about the planet has been used more than once in science fiction films);
- there is no ozone layer and, therefore, there is no protection from radiation, therefore, radiation doses on the surface of Mars are fatal;
- because of the rarefaction of the atmosphere and low pressure, a person can be there only in a spacesuit - without it, oxygen in the blood turns into gas bubbles, and this is fatal;
- when approaching the Sun, the strongest dust storms are frequent on Mars - the wind reaches a speed of 200 km / h, they sometimes last for several weeks, often covering the entire surface of the planet.
Interesting! Spacecraft were launched to the planet more than once, but only a third of them were able to complete the assigned tasks, and the rest disappeared - apparently, as scientists suggested, there is a Bermuda triangle, only a Martian one.
Jupiter is a giant planet of gases. Its dimensions are amazing - the mass is 318 times the mass of the Earth, the volume is 1300 times, the length of the diameter is 10 times. The amazing planet is unusual with interesting facts not only for adults but also for children.
Interesting facts about the giant planet:
- Jupiter has more satellites than other planets - 79 (on Europa, one of the satellites, an ocean was discovered, and there is more water in it than in all Earth's oceans and, probably, there are living organisms there);
- 10 hours is the time it takes to turn around the axis, and the planet takes 12 years to orbit;
- the atmosphere is 18 times denser than the Earth's atmosphere and 89% of its composition is hydrogen, 8-10% is helium, 1-3% is other elements;
- the giant protects the Earth from a large number of meteorites, attracting them to itself (the power of its magnetic field is greater than that of other planets of the solar system);
- For more than 300 years, an atmospheric vortex of huge dimensions (the Great Red Spot) has been raging and is clearly visible from the Earth, its speed is 435 km / h.
Reference! The core of the planet is heated to an enormous temperature of 20,000 ° C.
Saturn is the planet following Jupiter, named after the god who patronized agriculture among the ancient Romans. You can see her without instruments. Many data about the planet were obtained using 4 spacecraft that flew to Saturn.
Interesting Planet Facts:
- the density of Saturn is very low (0.687g / cm3), so if it happened to be placed in water, it would float on its surface;
- the seasons change, as on Earth, but the season lasts - 7 years, and the year - 30 Earth years, the length of the day - 10 hours 32 minutes 35 seconds;
- due to the high speed of rotation, the planet is significantly flattened at the poles;
- near Saturn, rings of cosmic dust and ice particles are visible, and about 62 satellites of different sizes (the smallest have no names).
An unusual fact! A powerful wind on the surface reaches speeds of up to 1800 km / h, and hexagonal clouds are sometimes visible through a telescope.
Uranus is a little explored planet and any interesting fact about it makes you think about the possibilities of the human mind:
- This giant ice planet with a solid cold core is 80% liquid, and the atmosphere is made of helium, hydrogen and a small amount of methane, which gives it a greenish color;
- atmospheric temperature - -224 ° С;
- a short day - only 17 hours, but a long year - 84 earth years;
- the axis of rotation is tilted by 98 ° (according to the assumptions of scientists, the axis tilted as a result of an impact on a cosmic body) and the rotation occurs from east to west;
- Uranus has 13 rings, which are believed to be the remains of a satellite after its collision with the planet.
Reference! The shell of Uranus, about 8,000 km thick, consists of various gases, and the planet has no solid surface.
Neptune is the planet farthest from the Luminary, which has many internal satellites rotating inside its orbit, and only two external ones. The aqua color is given to it by methane in the atmosphere.
There are many interesting and surprising facts about the planet. Here are some of them:
- a day lasts 16 hours, and Neptune moves in orbit for 164 years;
- temperature indicators in the upper atmosphere reach - 221, 45 ° С;
- there are 5 dark rings, consisting of dust particles and pebbles;
- the Voyager 2 research vehicle flew past Neptune in 1989 at a distance of 3,000 km.
Proven fact! The wind on Neptune can pick up speed of 2100 km / h.
The interesting facts and stories about the planets given above are just a small fraction of what science now knows about them. The unexplored depths of the Cosmos are fraught with many more interesting and unusual things.