Hello dear readers of our site. The Black Sea … There is something formidable and mysterious in its name. Nevertheless, despite its name, it is very popular among tourists visiting Georgia, Ukraine, the Russian Federation, Turkey.
And today we decided to take a closer look at this amazing reservoir. In this article, we have collected the most interesting facts about the Black Sea.
In ancient times, the sea, then located on the outskirts of the Mediterranean, was called “Pontus Axeinus” (Pont Aksinsky), which literally translates as “inhospitable sea.” This name of its waters was largely due to the fact that wild tribes lived on its shores.
When the Greeks were able to land on the coast, they changed the name to Pontus Euxinus (Pontus Euxinus), which was already translated as “hospitable sea”.
But why is it called Black today? In fact, there is no exact version. According to one version, it was named “black” because of what north meant. For example, the red sea meant south.
According to another theory, it got this name due to the fact that all metal objects immersed in water eventually turn black. This is due to the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the depths.
A thin upper layer of water (up to 150 m) supports a unique biological life in the Black Sea ecosystem. Deeper and denser layers of water are saturated with hydrogen sulfide, which has accumulated at the bottom over thousands of years as a result of decomposition of organic matter. Due to the unique geomorphological structure and specific hydrochemical conditions, specific organisms live in its deep waters, mainly at the level of protozoa, bacteria and multicellular invertebrates.
In fact, the Black Sea is the largest meromictic body of water on the planet (a body of water in which there is almost no water circulation between layers).
This is an inland sea. It is sandwiched between Asia Minor and Southeast Europe. It is surrounded by six states: Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. Abkhazia, unrecognized by most countries of the world, is also located on the banks.
Many rivers flow into the Black Sea, including the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Don, Kuban, Kyzylirmak and Rioni. Water leaves it only through one source: the Bosphorus Strait (it is a narrow oblong shallow channel about 31 km long, 0.7 to 3.5 km wide and 39 to 100 m deep).
Some geologists believe that before the Mediterranean Sea flooded it with salt water, it was a freshwater lake (the largest in the world at the time). According to the theory, this happened around 5600 BC. NS.
It is home to approximately 180 species of fish. About 1/5 of these species are of commercial importance. The most important species in the industry are anchovy, sprat, horse mackerel, etc. Most of the marine plants and animals that inhabit its waters come from the Mediterranean Sea.
Currently, there is an accelerated industrial expansion on its coast, which has reduced the quality of water in some areas. It is also significantly impacted by oil spills, overfishing, invasive species such as carp and comb jellies, ship traffic and industrial effluents. As we noted earlier, the marine flora and fauna are not so rich here, so there is a danger that it can be reduced to several dozen species if the water continues to be polluted, fish are massively caught, etc.
It’s a pretty big sea. Its length is about 600 km from north to south and about 1175 km from east to west. The area is 422,000 km². As for the maximum depth, it is 2210 meters.
Shipping on the Black Sea has been known since the days of the ancient Phoenicians. The Greek historian Herodotus described the northern shores of the sea in the 5th century BC, and the first navigational manuals, called periplas, were written by the Greeks in the 4th century BC. Its shores were inhabited by many peoples, including Slavs and Turks. By the 15th century, the Turks had taken over the entire coastline.
There are only a few small islands here. The largest is Dzharylgach Island, with an area of 62 square kilometers. Despite being the largest island, it is uninhabited.
Its history for most of the 18th and entire 19th centuries was associated with the struggle for dominance in the waters of two major powers: the Ottoman and Russian Empires. In the course of this struggle, by the middle of the 19th century, a clear leader emerged – Russia.
We have already written above about invasive species, in particular, about ctenophores. They were brought there not so long ago, in 1982, but after 8 years their volume amounted to about 900 million tons, and they caused significant damage to the fishing and tourism industries.
It is a fairly calm sea when compared to other seas. The thing is that the magnitude of its tides is very small and is observed only at the surf.
The amount of precipitation of water inflow from the Sea of Azov and rivers exceeds the rate of water evaporation. For this reason, the height of the Black Sea is 20-30 centimeters higher than the Marmara Sea. Because of this, the water “flows” into the Marble, forming an upper course.
At the same time, in the lower layers there is another, lower current, which is directed back.
It is one of the safest seas in the world. There are almost no poisonous fish here, no sea urchins, sea snakes, sharp corals. Even out of two species of living jellyfish, only one can sting, and that only causes irritation of the skin.
Moreover, unlike other seas, where a variety of sharks live, only one species is found here – the Black Sea katran. This is a fairly small fish no more than 180 cm long. These sharks do not attack humans. There is not a single recorded case when a katran attacked a fisherman or swimmers.
That’s all, dear readers. Thank you for visiting our site.