Hello dear readers of the Interessno.ru website. The Baltic Sea is the youngest sea on our planet. It was formed approximately 10-15,000 years ago, after the last ice age. The Baltic Sea borders nine states: Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Russia.
And today we decided to take a closer look at this amazing sea. In this article, we have collected the most interesting facts about the Baltic Sea.
Its catchment area is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area. Also, more than 1/3 of the sea has a depth of less than 30 meters, which is why the volume of water here is relatively small compared to the surface area (the average depth is only 54 meters, and the maximum is 459 meters).
Despite the fact that the water in it is salty, the concentration of salt here is very low and is only about 0.1-0.8%. Salinity also depends on location. For example, the closer to the North Sea, the saltier the water and vice versa, the closer to the Gulf of Finland, the less salty it is. This phenomenon is mainly caused by the fact that it is surrounded by land, the channel with the North Sea is very narrow, and the main sources that feed it with water are freshwater rivers that flow from the mainland.
Due to the low salinity, both marine and freshwater fish are found here. A completely different situation is observed in the western part. Near the North Sea, where the water is most salty, there are about 30 different species of sharks and rays. Among the large shark species there are hammerhead sharks and dark gray sharks.
Due to the low salinity level, it can freeze. On average, about half of its area is covered with ice with the onset of cold weather. The most abundant layer of ice is observed in February-March and in some areas can reach 70 cm in thickness.
At the same time, from 1720 to the present day, 20 cases were recorded when it froze completely. The last such case was noted in 1987.
Today the Baltic Sea is mainly used by humans for commercial fishing. Fish species such as cod, herring and sprat are caught here, and most of the fish caught is herring and sprat.
It is home to over 20 islands and archipelagos. The island of Gotland, located off the coast of the Kingdom of Sweden, is the largest island in the Baltic Sea. Gotland’s area is 2,994 km2…
The second largest island is Saaremaa. It is the largest skeleton in Estonia, with an area of 2,672 km2…
The ancient Roman historian and one of the most famous writers of antiquity, Publius Cornelius Tacitus, called it “Mare Suebicum”. This name was given by Tacitus because of the Suevi (collective name for the population of multiethnic East Germany) inhabiting the coastal regions of this sea. The first person who gave it its modern name was the German geographer Adam of Bremen.
Although the origin of the name “Baltika” is unclear, it may have come from the German word for “belt”, which was used to refer to two Danish straits (Small Belt and Big Belt).
Piracy flourished here from the 8th to the 14th century, especially in regions near Prussia and Pomerania. Around the 11th century, immigrants from Germany began to settle on its eastern shores. Later they were joined by settlers from Denmark, the Netherlands, and Scotland. By the 18th century, Russia had established control over most of the Baltic Sea. Because of this, Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, as he saw the strategic importance of this sea for his state.
It is a cool enough sea for swimming. The maximum water temperature on the hottest days rarely exceeds 24 degrees Celsius. The swimming season, in Finland, on average, lasts no more than 1.5 months. In addition to being located to the north, it is also very shallow and the water cools quickly when winds or temperatures drop.
After World War II, various countries, including the Soviet Union, Britain and the United States of America, disposed of chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea, raising concerns about environmental pollution.
At the bottom, at a depth of 87 meters, a strange round object was discovered, which now bears the unspoken name “Baltic UFO”. This object has a perfect circular shape, and its diameter is about 60 meters. This facility was discovered by a group of Swedish oceanographers. It is not known for certain what this object is, but the most realistic version is that this is an underwater trap of the Third Reich for the submarines of its opponents.
Over the years, it has faced serious pollution problems not only from oil spills, but also from agriculture and sewage emissions.
On the coast of the Baltic Sea, there are countries that place an important emphasis on agriculture in their economies. Agriculture is actively developing in Poland, the Russian Federation, etc. Many wastes from agriculture are dumped into the sea, which leads not only to pollution, but also to over-enrichment of nutrients, provoking massive growth of algae.
It is often referred to as the dirtiest sea on the planet.
As in the case of the Black Sea, approximately 100,000 km2 the seabed (1/4 of its area) is an absolutely dead zone. Saltier (and, accordingly, denser) water “settles” at the bottom, isolating itself from surface waters and the atmosphere. This leads to a decrease in the oxygen concentration in such zones. Ultimately, such conditions are suitable only for the existence of bacteria, which digest organic matter and release hydrogen sulfide. This concludes our article, dear readers. Thank you for your attention to our website.