Hello dear readers of our site. Oil and petroleum products will be a part of our daily life for a long time to come. As technology improves, its exploration and production changes. Advanced drilling techniques enable exploration companies to exploit reserves that were previously inaccessible to humans.
And today we decided to take a closer look at this natural oily flammable liquid. In this article, we have collected the most interesting facts about oil.
Crude oil is a natural resource, the composition of which varies from location to location. It is mainly composed of hydrocarbons and small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. Formed from the remains of plants and small animals that died millions of years ago. Due to natural factors such as high temperature and pressure, all of these organic compounds are converted to crude oil.
Depending on its type and method of extraction, it can be divided into light, medium, heavy and super heavy. Its density is measured in API degrees. The denser it is, the more difficult it is to recycle it later. That is why there are different brands of oil (Brent, etc.).
In ancient Egypt, bitumen was used to embalm the dead pharaohs. Probably, it is he who is responsible for the blackening effect of some mummies. But certainly not all, the first mummies were made without it, since bitumen began to be actively used only in the later stages of the existence of Ancient Egypt.
The world’s first oil refinery was built in 1856 in the city of Ploiesti, Romania. From April 1, 1857, street kerosene lighting was organized in the city of Bucharest. After her there were: the USA – in 1859, Italy – in 1860, Canada – in 1862.
One drop of oil can cover one fourth of a square meter with a film, respectively, a ton of oil – about 500 hectares of the surface of the reservoir. Oil is dangerous not only because it can catch fire on the surface or cause fires on land, but also because part of it settles on the seabed. Oil products that have settled to the bottom are oxidized for a very long time and cause irreparable damage to all living things.
Everyone knows that petrol, kerosene, diesel, marine and aviation fuel are made from oil, but have you ever thought about the origin of the package in your kitchen? Regular “T-shirts”, garbage bags, candy wrappers. All this is made from petroleum products. Also nylon, petroleum jelly and many other things that are around us are things made of “black gold”. The rise in oil prices directly affects the rise in prices for all goods, because oil is needed both for the production of certain products and for their transportation.
What color is the oil? We are sure that you will answer – black. Yes, but not always. It can also be yellowish, brownish, reddish and even greenish. Its color directly depends on its density. For example, there is even a transparent Azerbaijani oil – Surakhan white (low resinous, low sulfur and low paraffinic).
In the 19th century, she rescued whales. At that time, medicines, soap, and cosmetics were made from whale oil. But the most important thing was that it was filled with lighting lamps. In 1846, the whaling fleet in America numbered 735 ships. In 1859, the first oil well was drilled in Pennsylvania, which laid the foundation for the oil industry. As it turned out, this method of obtaining fuel is cheaper than the previous one.
In Azerbaijan, in the city of Naftalan, you can take an oil bath. Naftalan oil entered the practice of official medicine for the treatment of skin diseases at the end of the 19th century. Even in ancient times, travelers from foreign countries exported this medicinal oil to Iran, Turkey, Crimea and India in leather bags. Naftalan is a special grade of oil from a field located near the city of Naftalan. It is used to treat diseases such as osteochondrosis, infertility, burns, etc.
In fact, there is not so much oil on Earth (or rather, its proven reserves). In 2012, scientists roughly calculated how much it would last with a stable consumption of 93 million barrels per day (at that time, that was exactly how much humanity needed for one day). In this situation, the proven reserves will last for 53 years. In 2014, Forbes calculated the volume of explored deposits and daily consumption and came to the conclusion that it will last for 50 years. Therefore, by 2064 we may be completely without this “black gold”. Fortunately, scientists are already looking for ways to replace this slowly renewable energy source with other renewable sources.
Venezuela currently owns the largest oil reserves. In addition to it, the three richest countries in “black gold” include Saudi Arabia – and Iran (according to OPEC, according to BP – Canada). As for the UAE, they are on the 6th line. The Russian Federation is in seventh place and the United States of America is in eighth.
The Beverly Hills High School has 19 fields and has been producing oil for quite some time. As of May 2006, her wells were pumping between 400 and 500 barrels a day, bringing the school approximately $ 300,000 a year. In 2017, oil production came to a complete halt due to an increase in student filings for health problems. In particular, it was said that oil vapors led to the appearance of cancer in children.
Oil is very difficult to extract. A very large part of it is “hard to recover”. It lies at a depth of more than 4 km (which makes its extraction difficult and not always profitable). Also, it is often found in oil-bearing strata, where the temperature is kept from 1000 degrees Celsius. The well can also be heavily watered and be in the zone of contact with a gas-bearing formation (or contain dissolved corrosive gases such as hydrogen sulfide, which requires additional treatment using expensive equipment). Therefore, the extraction of this “black gold” is not such an easy task.
That’s all for us, dear readers. Thank you for paying attention to our site.