|Official language||No; predominance. tigrinya, Arabic, English, Italian|
|Form of government||presidential republic|
|Population||6 081 196 people|
Hello dear readers of the Interessno.ru website. Eritrea is an African country located in northeastern Africa. This state shares borders with Sudan, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Today this state is one of the poorest in the world.
And today we decided to better acquaint you with this African country. In this article, we have collected the most interesting facts about Eritrea.
Asmara is the capital and largest city of Eritrea. This city is located at the top of a cliff, which is both the northwestern edge of the Eritrean Highlands and the Great Rift Valley in neighboring Ethiopia. In 2017, the city of Asmara was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Despite the fact that the state’s constitution guarantees freedom of speech and the media, Eritrea is considered one of the worst countries in the world in terms of media freedom. All media in the country are owned by the state.
Despite recent economic growth in the mining sector, Eritrea remains one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world to this day. The economy of this state has not yet fully recovered from the consequences of a 30-year war, which led to high unemployment, limited income opportunities and high levels of poverty.
Agriculture is the backbone of the country’s economy. It accounts for about 25% of the total GDP. Agriculture also employs almost all of the rural population. The mining industry (copper, gold, iron ore, nickel, sulfur, marble, granite and potassium) is increasingly attracting foreign investors.
There are about 26% of arable land here, but only about 4-5% is cultivated. Agriculture, livestock and fishing are the livelihoods of 75% of the population.
After leaving school, boys and girls must join the army. Officially, the service life is 1.5 years. However, many are forced to serve longer, up to 15 years. The servicemen themselves are often used as labor force (they build houses for their commanders, etc.). This is the main reason why people are leaving Eritrea en masse.
The country’s government justifies this by the constant threat from Ethiopia (Eritrea fought for independence from Ethiopia from 1961 to 1991).
Although the Constitution of Eritrea states that all nine ethnic languages in the country are equal, there are two administrative languages in the government: Tigrinya and Arabic. Tigrinya is a Semitic language also spoken by the Tigers of Ethiopia. More than half of the population speaks this language. Arabic was chosen to represent the Muslim groups in the country. Eritreans over 50 can also speak Arabic, Amharic and Italian, as they still found life under the Ethiopian occupation (and their parents under the Italian occupation). The younger generation knows English as it is taught at school.
In Eritrea, being overweight or overweight is considered attractive and a sign of status. Only those who have enough food can be overweight, so this is a kind of symbol of wealth.
The land that is now Eritrea has been ruled by various powers for most of its history. The Italians captured it in 1885 and turned it into a colony by 1895. They also tried to use this territory to capture Ethiopia, but they failed.
During World War II, Great Britain conquered Eritrea from Italy.
In 1952, she became part of Ethiopia. However, the Eritreans wanted freedom, which led to a 30-year war. Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia in 1993.
The highest mountain in this country is Mount Emba Soira. Its height is estimated at 3,018 meters above sea level. As for the lowest point, it is known as the Denakil depression and is located in the northern part of the Afar depression, on the border of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The capital of Eritrea, Asmara, is called the “African city of Italy” or “New Rome”. Asmara got the name “New Rome” because of the characteristic buildings designed and built in the Italian style. Today, Asmara has over 400 Italian-style buildings. These buildings include the Impero Cinema, built in 1937; Presidential Palace, built in 1897 and others.
Eritrea is washed by the Red Sea. Its waters are home to about 14,000 species of fish. Moreover, about 17% of these species are endemic, that is, they are found only in the waters of this country.
On the territory of this state, you can find more than 500 species of birds and a large number of large and small animals. Jackals, gophers, gazelles, warthogs, lions, crocodiles, oryxes, spotted hyenas, elephants, etc. live here.
The country’s national dish is zigini. For its preparation it is necessary to stew the beef together with the Berber spice mixture. It is a traditional African dish eaten all over the country. Most often, zigini is served with Engera flatbread (Traditional Ethiopian and other Horn of Africa dish).
The name of the state comes from the phrase “Sinus Erythraeus”, the name that Greek traders of the 3rd century BC gave to the reservoir located between the Arabian Peninsula and the African continent (now the Red Sea).
Later, during the Roman Empire, the Romans called this reservoir “Mare Erythraeum”, which means “red sea”. When the Italians colonized the “strip of land” along the Red Sea in 1890, they named it “Eritrea”.
Eritreans pride themselves on their hard work and resilience, as well as showing great social responsibility. They respect their elders, believe in signs and honor family customs. That’s all, dear readers. Thank you for your attention to our website.