Welcome to our website Interessno.ru, dear readers. We use electricity every day. It is the most versatile source of energy on our planet, and we have been dependent on it for about 100 years. But at the same time, despite all its importance for a person, most people do not know anything about it.
And today we decided to fix it. In the article, we have collected the most interesting facts about electricity, which should be enjoyed not only by children, but also by adults.
Any person more or less familiar with physics knows that the speed of the current is equal to the speed of light, that is, about 300,000 km / s. But at the same time, we will make an amendment for the fact that it is necessary to distinguish between the speed of movement of charged particles and the speed of the electric current itself. The particles themselves (electrons) move rather slowly. With alternating current, they generally move in different directions. But the force that makes them move is propagating through the wires at a speed of about 300,000 km / s.
Electricity is a renewable source of energy. It can be obtained using:
- Water. For this, hydroelectric power plants (HPPs) are built. They use the energy of falling (moving) water. Hydroelectric power plants use a renewable source to generate electricity.
- Heat. For this, thermal power plants (TPPs) are built. Today they are the most common (more than 70% of all stations in the world are thermal power plants).
- Nuclear energy. For this, nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being built.
- The warmth of the earth’s interior. For this, geothermal stations (GeoES) are being built. There are such stations in the United States of America, Iceland and other countries.
- Wind. For this, wind power plants (WPPs) are being built.
- solar energy. To do this, build solar power plants (SPS).
- Trash. Electricity comes from incinerators as a by-product.
Lightning is electricity. The lightning voltage can reach 50,000,000 volts, and the discharge current is 10,000 – 100,000 amperes. The average lightning speed is 150 km/s. Lightning is caused by the collision of positively charged particles in the sky and negatively charged particles below.
Living beings simply need electricity. Nerve cells in our body use electricity to send signals to muscles and muscle cells. The muscle cells of the human heart use electricity to contract. The ECG electrocardiogram machine measures the electricity passing through the heart. The information that the brain transmits to the rest of the body is carried out with the help of neurons (electrically excitable cells).
But humans are not the only living beings that use electricity. Electric eels use electrical discharges up to 500 volts to stun prey or scare away predators. Platypuses use electrical impulses to hunt underwater, etc.
The history of electricity is complex and full of misconceptions. People started talking about electricity as early as 600 BC, long before 1752, when Benjamin Franklin discovered the connection between electricity and lightning and created a lightning rod.
One of the first electric batteries was built by the Italian scientist Alessandro Volta in 1800. It was the first device capable of producing direct electrical current. The first light bulb (working with a non-burning filament) was invented by Thomas Edison around 1878.
On average, a stun gun emits about 50,000 volts upon impact. But why then does a person remain alive, because we know from childhood that the voltage of 220 volts in a socket is deadly for a person? The thing is that the danger to a person is not voltage, but current strength. Deadly for humans 0.1 Ampere. The power of the shocker is a maximum of 3 watts. And the current strength is about 0.00006 Amperes. Plus, the blow is closed on the needles of the shocker, which is why the current does not pass through the whole body, as would happen with a blow from an outlet.
Very often, birds sit on high-voltage wires and feel as if nothing had happened. For many who are not familiar with physics, this seems like something supernatural. In fact, everything is quite simple. There is practically no potential difference between the places where the bird touches the wire. Sitting on a high-voltage wire, the bird acquires the potential of this wire, and nothing more. The current from the bird’s body, surrounded by air, has nowhere to go but back into the wire. If the bird touched two wires, the effect would be quite different.
The electric field works on the same principle as gravity. Only unlike gravity, which can only attract objects to each other, an electric field can both attract and repel objects.
Electric current can be direct and variable. The electricity we use in our homes uses alternating current. Direct current is widely used in local networks of automobile and air transport, in computer electrical circuits, etc.
In order for us to simply turn on a light bulb or a TV, electricity must pass from the power plants that generate it to high-voltage switchgears. Then, along power lines to substations. From there, it enters the distribution lines, which, in turn, deliver it to the transformer, and it, finally, to your home.
You think electric cars have appeared recently and they were invented by Elon Musk. Not at all. The first electric car appeared in 1891. Designed by William Morrison.
Water is a good conductor of electricity. We have known this since childhood. But not all water is a good conductor. For example, distilled water is generally non-conductive. This is due to the fact that salts and other impurities act as conductors in ordinary water. They are absent in distilled water, so such conditions are not suitable for electricity. This concludes our article, our dear readers. Thank you for paying attention to our site.