Hello dear readers. Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 BC, was undoubtedly one of the most influential figures in history. His empire spread from Gibraltar to Punjab, and he made Greek the language of his Greek world. After his father Philip II united most of the cities of Greece, Alexander continued his affairs, taking control of Thrace and Thebes, Syria, Phenicia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Egypt, Pakistan.
And today we decided to acquaint you with this outstanding historical figure. In this article, we have collected the most interesting facts about this great commander.
Alexander III belonged to the Argeadai family, the first ruling dynasty of Ancient Macedonia. The parents of the future conqueror, the Macedonian king Philip II, and the queen Olympias, were considered the descendants of the gods and the greatest heroes of Ancient Greece.
According to legend, the ancestor of Philip II was the son of Zeus himself – the legendary Hercules. The family of Alexander’s mother went back to Achilles (Achilles) – the hero of Homer’s Odyssey. From childhood, the young king believed in the divinity of his origin, which largely influenced the formation of the personality and the formation of character.
According to the famous Roman writer Claudius Elianus, Alexander the Great was red-haired.
According to legend, the day of the birth of Alexander the Great was filled with omens and incredible coincidences. On the night of the birth of the future conqueror, the Temple of Artemis of Ephesus (aka Artemision), one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burned down. The Persian priests saw in this event a sign of the future collapse of the empire.
Philip II received the news of the birth of an heir on the day of the capture of the besieged city of Potidea. Then it became known about the major victory of the Macedonians over the Illyrians.
The victory of the royal racehorse at the Olympic Games was also considered an auspicious omen. All coincidences promised a bright future for newborn Alexander.
The philosopher Aristotle became the mentor of the young Alexander. But when he trained the future commander, he was not yet a famous student of Plato.
Under the leadership of Aristotle, the future king studied geometry, geography, medicine, zoology, philosophy and rhetoric. The future ruler was also fond of poetry, loved to re-read Homer’s Iliad, knew the poems of the greatest poets of antiquity by heart.
At the age of 16, he took part in his first military campaign. Under the leadership of the experienced generals Parmenion and Antipater, appointed by his father as mentors, the prince defeated the rebellious tribe of honey. On their lands, he founded the first city named after himself – Alexandropol.
During the conquests (and this is as much as 15 years), he did not lose a single battle. A born commander with a masterly command of military strategy, he emerged victorious from the most difficult and decisive battles. His streak of victories began when he was only 18 years old.
But not Alexander, but his father Philip II was able to create the most deadly and powerful army of that time. The tsar did not spare funds for the modernization of the army, created an infantry phalanx (which his son loved to use later), siege equipment and cavalry, and set up a logistical support system.
Alexander’s invincibility was based not only on a powerful army. The young commander was distinguished by his ability to inspire and lead people, he fearlessly went into battle and was always ready to lead the most reckless attack.
He tamed a wild horse named Bucephalus when he was 12 years old. He loved his horse so much that when he died in 326 BC, he renamed the city in India after his favorite horse.
He always led his army behind him. He did not hide behind the backs of ordinary soldiers. Often the commander was on the verge of death, saved by chance or by the hand of a close friend.
Plutarch writes in his memoirs that during the Battle of Issus, Alexander the Great was wounded with a sword in the thigh, near Marakanda – with an arrow in the shin, under Gaza – with a dart in the shoulder. An arrow wound to the chest during the Indian company was life-threatening. A lung was damaged. In Hyrcania, Alexander suffered a powerful blow to the back of his head with a stone and nearly lost his sight.
He believed that the best way to maintain control over defeated enemies was to create cultural unity between peoples.
So, for example, it is known that, having conquered Persia, the king arranged a mass wedding, where he married two Persian princesses, and his generals married noble Eastern ladies. Alexander wore a Persian tunic and diadem, and also proclaimed himself king of Asia.
After the spectacular capture of the Sogdian Rock in 327 BC, 28-year-old Alexander examined his captives and saw Roxana, a young girl, the daughter of a Bactrian nobleman. He fell in love with her at first sight. Roxana became the only girl who gave birth to Alexander’s son, Alexander IV. The son was born a few months after the death of his father.
The cause of Alexander’s death has not been reliably established. According to one version, he was poisoned. Other historians cite malaria, pneumonia, leukemia and West Nile fever as the causes of death. Theories have been put forward about cancer or leishmaniasis.
British toxicologists put forward a version of an overdose of hellebore or white hellebore (in ancient times they were used as medicinal products).
It is only known for certain that the great commander died after a strong 10 days of fever at the age of 32.
Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, Julius Caesar, Adolf Hitler, Napoleon Bonaparte and Benito Mussolini have one more thing in common, besides the fact that they were generals. All of them suffered from ailurophobia – an obsessive fear of cats.
From Egypt to Turkey, Alexander left his mark throughout the Greek Empire. By the end of his reign, he named a total of 70 cities after himself.
That’s all, dear readers. Thank you for paying attention to our Internet resource.