Hello dear readers of the Interessno.ru website. Acid is any substance that tastes sour in aqueous solution, changes the color of certain indicators (for example, litmus paper turns red), reacts with some metals (for example, iron) to release hydrogen, etc. They can be either inorganic (sulfuric, nitrogenous, hydrochloric, etc.) or organic (carbonic, sulfonic, etc.).
And today we have prepared for you some interesting facts about these chemical compounds. Sit back and let’s get started.
The pH scale is the most common way to measure its strength, based on the concentration of active hydrogen ions when mixed with water. Lemon juice, for example, has a pH of about 2, which means that one hydrogen ion is released for every 100 molecules. And stomach acid at pH 1 produces one hydrogen ion for every ten other molecules.
They corrode the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Acid corrosion or tissue burn depends on both the pH level and the ability of certain anions to bind to the protein. And when the tissue is damaged by alkali and acid, a so-called scab (crust) is formed in place. However, when damaged by alkali, the scab is whitish, loose and has no boundaries. Alkalis penetrate tissues more easily, which causes more serious damage to the human body. As for acids, when they are damaged, the scab is harder and has clear boundaries. Unlike alkaline ones, their burns are often superficial.
A pH of about 0 to 3 corresponds to a strong acid. These include sulfuric, nitrogen, hydrogen iodide, hydrogen bromide, etc. The weak ones (have a pH of 3 to 7) include sulfur, coal, silicon, hydrogen sulfide, phosphoric and others.
Lemons and other citrus fruits taste sour because they contain citric acid. It is used to add savory flavor to foods and soft drinks. Citrus fruits also contain another acid, ascorbic (aka Vitamin C), which a person needs for healthy skin and gums.
Chemists call super acid anything stronger than pure sulfuric acid. They were first described in 1927 by Harvard scientist James Bryant Conant, but their full study did not begin until the 1960s, mainly thanks to chemist George Ole. In 1994, George Ola even received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on superacids.
One of the most common ways to test whether an unknown substance is acid or alkali is to test with litmus paper. It is enough to moisten the litmus paper with the substance and see how it changes its color. If this substance is acid, then the paper should change color to red. If it is alkali, the color of the paper will turn blue. Any neutral chemicals will not change the color of the litmus paper.
And they and the foundations are important for the human body. For example, our stomach secretes hydrochloric acid HCl. It is essential for the digestion of food. The pancreas secretes a bicarbonate-rich fluid to neutralize the HCl before it reaches the small intestine. This is how everything is thought out in our body.
Fluoroantimonic acid is the most powerful acid known to mankind. It is a mixture of hydrogen fluoride and antimony pentafluoride. It is ten thousand times stronger than magic acid, ten billion (109) times stronger than pure sulfuric acid, and a trillion (1012) times stronger than concentrated hydrochloric acid – which can cause very serious burns.
It doesn’t just burn human skin. It will eat through skin, bones, and anything else it can touch. It also eats up almost any container. The only way to store such a corrosive substance is in a Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) container. Teflon is a plastic with rare physical and chemical properties and is widely used in technology and in everyday life.
They are used in everyday life and industry. Nitrogen, for example, is used to produce fertilizers, explosives, and special organic compounds. Salt helps to get rid of rust, with its help Vitamin C is made (it is enough to mix it with corn syrup), activated charcoal and some other medicines.
One of the most popular acids is sulfuric acid. In our country, it is produced in the largest volumes and is an important commodity chemical. Most of it (about 60%) is spent on the production of various fertilizers: superphosphates, ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfates. About 20% is used in the chemical industry for the production of detergents, synthetic resins, dyes, pharmaceuticals, petroleum catalysts, insecticides and antifreezes.
Nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA contain the genetic code of living organisms. These are special molecules that carry the genetic code of the parents and pass it on to their offspring. DNA contains similar “blueprints” that “tell” how to build proteins made of amino acids.
There is such a term as “Tsarskaya vodka”. It is a very strong acid. It is obtained by mixing HNO3 (in proportions of about 65-68%) and HCl (in proportions of about 32-35%). You can easily dissolve gold and platinum in Tsarskaya Vodka.
The only acid with a carbon number of more than ten is margaric acid. The French organic chemist Michel Eugene Chevreul gave this name not to any particular substance, but to a mixture of palmic and stearic acids. Later, when it was synthesized in the laboratory, it was left with its former name. In the 1960s, it was found in lamb fat, sunflower oil, and other natural substances. That’s all for us, dear readers. Thank you for your attention to our Internet resource.