One of the main development problems remains the technical and technological lag of agriculture from developed countries.
The agro-industrial complex is one of the key sectors of the economy of the EAEU Member States, which has significant potential for saturating the domestic market, ensuring food security and sustainable development of rural areas. The agro-industrial complex of the EAEU has been demonstrating a certain positive trend in recent years, and although in 2021 in all EAEU member states there was a decrease in agricultural production (by 1.4% in the EAEU as a whole, including in Armenia by 1.0 %, in Belarus – by 4.2%, in Kazakhstan – by 2.4%, in Kyrgyzstan – by 5.0%, in Russia – by 0.9%) for such types of products as milk, eggs, vegetable oil , pork, grain, sugar, domestic production almost completely met the needs of the population. However, dependence on imports of fruits and berries remains, including those that can be grown in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union.
Among the main problems that the members of the five will have to solve are dependence on the import of breeding and genetic resources, the development of the production of feed, feed additives, complex fertilizers, plant protection products, and the development of agricultural engineering. For each of these areas, the EEC has developed a set of incentive measures, in particular, joint actions have been identified to develop seed production and livestock breeding in the EAEU, measures have been developed to support agricultural machinery manufacturers, measures have been taken to create conditions for localization in the Union of the production of modern equipment and high-tech resources for agriculture. economy.
Here is a list of the main sectors of the agricultural business in the EAEU with the highest potential for effective growth and the most attractive for investment:
– specialized meat and dairy cattle breeding;
– production of equipment for the dairy and meat industries;
– development of greenhouse facilities for the production of early vegetables;
– construction of logistics infrastructure facilities (vegetable stores, warehouses, etc.);
– production of animal feed, microbiological preparations and feed additives;
– deep processing of grain crops in order to produce biotechnological products with high added value, in demand in the food and processing industries (feed, alcohol, brewing, etc.);
– production of biological and chemical preparations for use in agriculture (veterinary preparations, chemical and biological plant protection products);
– development of horticulture and production of natural juices from local raw materials;
– production of bacterial concentrates for the food industry and biopreservatives for forage ensiling.
The EAEU provides opportunities for state support of agriculture. This is one of the directions of the coordinated (coordinated) agro-industrial policy. The obligations of the parties in terms of the level of maximum support and responsibility for possible violations (payment of compensation in the amount corresponding to the excess of obligations) are established in the Treaty on the EAEU. Measures that have the most distorting effect on the mutual trade of the EAEU member states in agricultural goods are prohibited in the EAEU. Within the framework of the Union, the following obligations are established on measures that have a distorting effect on mutual trade in agricultural goods: for the Republic of Belarus – 10%, for Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia – their obligations under the WTO.
One of the main problems in the development of the agro-industrial complex in the EAEU countries remains the technical and technological backwardness of agriculture from developed countries. In this regard, the Member States of the Union have identified scientific and innovative development of the agro-industrial complex as one of the directions of the coordinated agro-industrial policy. Under the coordination of the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC), work has been launched to implement joint scientific and innovative activities in the field of the agro-industrial complex. As part of this process, List of promising scientific developmentswhich are of common interest for the development of the agro-industrial complex of the Member States. This included such areas as crop production, animal husbandry, aquaculture, veterinary medicine, and biotechnology. The general task of research activities is the development of modern approaches in the field of sustainable development and technological renewal of the agro-industrial complex, strategies for the development of interstate cooperation in order to ensure food security.
The EEC has developed promising projects to reduce the industry’s dependence on imported resources. In animal husbandry, this is the introduction of genomic selection, the improvement of our own food supply, the development of adaptive technologies for the procurement and storage of feed. In crop production, the possibility of implementing joint programs in the Union for the selection and seed production of sugar beet and oilseeds is being actively discussed. A single register is being created in electronic form containing information about the genus and species of an agricultural plant, the name of the variety, its economic and biological characteristics, soil and climatic zones suitable for cultivating the variety, etc. The use of this information by specialists of the agro-industrial complex, experts and breeders will contribute to the introduction of new highly productive varieties into economic circulation and the development of seed production in the Eurasian space.
In July 2020, the EEC developed the EAEU Agricultural Industry Development Map, which included large investment and innovative projects in the agricultural sector worth over US$ 10 million, which are significant for the development of the Union’s agricultural sector. In May 2018, the Council on Agro-Industrial Policy was established under the EEC Board, consisting of the heads of the authorized bodies of the Member States, and in May 2015, the Advisory Committee on the Agro-Industrial Complex, which included 6 representatives from Armenia, 7 representatives from Belarus, 6 representatives from Kazakhstan, 6 representatives from Kyrgyzstan and 9 representatives from Russia (4 representatives from the Russian Ministry of Agriculture, 1 representative from the Russian Ministry of Economic Development and 4 representatives of Russian business structures).
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