Oct 5, 2020
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Influenza in early pregnancy: complications, treatment, prevention

Influenza is a disease that scares many. After all, it is fraught with its own serious complications. And his current is not pleasant. At the same time, experts identify some categories of people for whom such an infection is especially dangerous. For example, when it comes to pregnant women. Many are worried so that the flu does not happen in early pregnancy.

Influenza during pregnancy

Influenza is a highly contagious disease of a viral nature, which most often has a seasonal nature: it most often occurs in the autumn-winter and early-spring periods. The infection, doctors say, is transmitted by airborne droplets, airborne dust. In rare cases, transmission options are also noted in a household way. Such a virus can persist on different surfaces for a long time: on plastic and glass – up to 3 days, on paper – up to 12 hours.

Influenza in early pregnancy is no different in its symptoms from standard manifestations. “The incubation period for influenza is rather short – from several hours to 7 days. On average, it takes 2-3 days. He has quite vivid manifestations – a sharp rise in temperature, a feeling of body aches, there is also a feeling of discomfort, a burning sensation in the nasopharynx, in the nose, a sore throat may appear, weakness may also be felt, nausea and vomiting may occur, as well as diarrhea, ”says obstetrician-gynecologist Angelina Brainina

Influenza in early pregnancy: nuances and risks

Influenza in early pregnancy, as well as in other periods, is extremely dangerous. “Initially, nature thought up so that the expectant mother has a natural immunodeficiency, that is, reduced immunity. This is necessary so that the mother’s natural immunity does not suppress the development of the unborn child. Because of this, we observe in pregnant women brighter symptoms and more frequent complications from influenza infection, ”says Angelina Brainina. And this is not the only difficulty.

“A feature of the disease is also the fact that the mother’s body needs an increased amount of oxygen, and the fetus becomes more sensitive to hypoxia. Therefore, in pregnant women, respiratory failure is a serious complication, which has a bad effect on the fetus, ”the obstetrician-gynecologist notes.

The risks of complications in expectant mothers are also growing. “Pregnant women often develop secondary infections against the background of a drop in immunity, and pneumonia may occur. In almost half of the hospitalizations of pregnant women with influenza, they develop pneumonia, ”the doctor explains.

Also, women, whether it is flu in the first trimester, whether it is an infection a little later, develops an inflammatory reaction called systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome, or a cytokine storm – it, says Angelina Brainina, can cause death of both the mother and the fetus.

Early pregnancy (I trimester) and flu raises many questions for many. Despite the fact that doctors note that according to the latest research data, influenza infection of a pregnant woman in the third trimester is more dangerous than in the first two, there are still many problems with the virus in the early stages. “The first trimester is up to 12 weeks. There is a complex history with a viral infection of the fetus and the effect on various organs. Influenza in the first trimester is dangerous because all the main organs and systems are laid down just before 12 weeks. The main target target of the virus is the fetal nervous system, its cardiovascular system. As a result, children of women who have met with a combination of early pregnancy and influenza have cleft lip, cleft palate, neural tube defect and congenital heart defects. There is also a definite connection between infection in pregnant women and the development of schizophrenia, leukemia, autism, Parkinson’s disease, various metabolic disorders, in particular diabetes mellitus, in the child, ”notes Angelina Brainina.

In addition, the specialist adds, the flu in early pregnancy is fraught with the fact that the pregnancy may end in miscarriage or freeze. In the later stages, infection is fraught with fetal growth retardation and intrauterine death of the child.

Influenza in early pregnancy: treatment and prevention

The first trimester of pregnancy and the flu require close medical supervision. Today, the diagnosis of pathology, notes Angelina Brainina, does not pose any particular problem. Now there are many accurate and fast diagnostic methods.

With regard to treatment, there can be certain difficulties. “Some drugs have a toxic effect on the fetus, while others have not been tested in pregnant women. Therefore, it is extremely important to observe the dosage, and the treatment of this disease should be prescribed for vital indications – most often in a hospital or under the strict supervision of a doctor. In no case should you be treated on your own, you shouldn’t prescribe yourself antiviral drugs on your own, ”says the obstetrician-gynecologist.

In parallel, antipyretic therapy can be used, and antibiotics are also allowed, but only as prescribed by a doctor, if necessary and under strict medical supervision.

There is also specific prevention – doctors note a good effect of vaccination, which is the most useful and safe. True, it is worthwhile to understand that it is advised to vaccinate, starting from the second trimester or when planning.

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