Jun 27, 2020
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Gods of ancient egypt

Anubis weighs the heart of the deceased on the scales of truth

According to scientists, in ancient Egypt, there were more than five thousand gods. A large number of deities is explained by the fact that in each city of this country they worshiped "their" gods. Different gods from neighboring cities could duplicate functions. In addition to the gods, there were monsters, spirits, magic creatures. It should be noted that many of the gods of Ancient Egypt have not been fully studied to this day.

Let's talk about the "main", most famous, gods worshiped by the inhabitants of this country.


Sun God. The supreme god, as, indeed, in other pagan cults, where the deity personifying the sun is the main one. He was depicted as a man with the head of a falcon, on which a solar disk is hoisted. The son of primitive chaos Nuna. Ra was the ruler of the whole world, and the pharaohs were his earthly incarnation. During the day, the Sun-Ra rode across the firmament on the barge Manjet, illuminating the earth, and at night, after moving to the barge Mesectetus, he illuminated the underworld of the dead. In Thebes it was compared with Amon (Amon – Ra), in Elephantine - with Khnum (Khnuma-Ra). The most common comparison was with the Mountain - Ra-Gorakhti.


King of the dead and judge of souls. The son of the earth god Hebe and the sky goddess Nut. As the ruler of Egypt, he taught people agriculture, horticulture and winemaking. He was killed by his envious brother Seth, flattered by the wife of Osiris, Queen Isis (concurrently their own sister) and the royal throne. According to mythology, became the first mummy. The most beloved god among the common people of ancient Egypt. He was depicted in the form of a swaddled mummy with free hands, in which he holds the symbols of royal power: heket and nehehu (scepter and flail).


God of heaven and sun. Son of Osiris and Isis. It was miraculously, with the help of magic, conceived by Isis from already from the dead Osiris. The winner of the murderer of his father and part-time of his own uncle, Seth. After a long struggle with the hated Seth, he inherited from his father, who began to rule the kingdom of the dead, the earthly kingdom. Patron of the Pharaohs. The whole of Egypt bowed to the mountain - its cult was very popular among all walks of life. At the same time, in each region there was "its own" Mountain - the names and holidays attributed to it differed significantly. He was portrayed as a man with the head of a falcon.

The wife of Osiris and at the same time his own sister. Mother Horus. It was she who, after a long search, found the body of Osiris, who was killed by Seth. Gathering the body dissected by the villain together, Isis made the first mummy and even, with the help of spells, managed to get pregnant from it. She patronized the children, the oppressed, sinners, artisans, and the dead. The cult of Isis was very popular throughout ancient Egypt. Depicted with a hat in the form of a royal throne.


Initially, he was the ruler of the kingdom of the dead, but with the strengthening of the cult of Osiris (father of Anubis) he transferred this position to him, becoming a guide in the kingdom of the dead. In addition, he was in the kingdom of the dead judge, weighing the heart of the deceased on the scales of truth, on the second bowl of which he laid the feather of the goddess Maat, symbolizing the truth. He is credited with inventing the custom of embalming the dead - he took part in the creation of the first mummy of Egypt - the mummy of his father Osiris. Patronized cemeteries and necropolises. He was portrayed with the head of a jackal. He was also portrayed as a jackal, or a wild dog, Sab.


Goddess of justice, truth, justice and harmony. Being the daughter of the creator of the world of the god Ra, she created harmony from chaos when creating the world. It controlled the stars, sunsets and sunrises, the seasons. It symbolized a law and a divine order. She was one of the judges of the afterlife. Depicted with an ostrich feather on her head. The pen is not ordinary - it is the pen of truth. During the trial, in the underworld, the feather of Maat was placed on one side of the scales, and on the other heart of the deceased (the only internal organ that was left in the mummy). If the heart outweighed, then the deceased led a sinful life, and he was devoured by the monster of the afterlife of Amat.


God of war, death, rage and chaos. The brother of Osiris, who killed him, having disgraced himself on the throne and the wife of Pharaoh. Initially, he was a very positive and popular god, and even defended and helped the god Ra, but closer to the 7th century BC. (during the XXVI dynasty) turned into the embodiment of universal evil, close in its habits to the devil. He began to embody savagery, anger, ferocity, envy. Most often depicted with the head of a donkey, although its images are found with the head of a crocodile and other animals. Associated with male sexual power.


God of wisdom and knowledge and, accordingly, the patron of scientists, libraries and all sciences, including magic. In addition, he patronized officials, being the guarantor of state order. One of the earliest gods of ancient Egypt. Thoth is credited with the invention of writing, the invention of the year, consisting of 365 days, the division of time into months and years ("the lord of time" is one of the many titles of Thoth). He was portrayed with the head of an ibis holding a staff and ankh (Coptic cross).nut

Goddess of heaven who controlled the change of day and night. Granddaughter of God Ra. Mother of Osiris, Isis and Seth. Patroness of the dead. It was mainly depicted as a woman stretched out, curved in the form of the firmament, resting her arms and legs on the ground. At the same time, her body is decorated either with stars (personifies the night), or by the suns (personifies the day). There are images of Nut in the form of a woman with a jug on her head or a Heavenly Cow.


Goddess of war and the incinerating sun. The daughter of God Ra. Served as a formidable eye of Ra on earth. She could both let diseases and heal any of them. Being a healer, she patronized doctors. She had a very harsh and hot-tempered character. Guarded the pharaohs. Depicted with the head of a lioness.

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