Jan 12, 2021
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From plague to coronavirus. What are epidemiological vaccinations?

The national immunization schedule includes vaccination against various dangerous infections, many of which have been overcome solely through the introduction of vaccines.

Some vaccines are included in the standard calendar and are used in most cases, regardless of the epidemiological situation. Here we are talking mainly about the so-called “childhood vaccinations”. But there is also a separate section in the National Vaccination Calendar called “vaccine prevention for epidemic indications.”

Basic provisions

Prophylactic vaccinations for epidemic indications are carried out to citizens when there is a threat of infectious diseases, which are determined by a special list. The decision to carry out such vaccination is made by the chief state sanitary doctor of the country and the chief sanitary doctors in the regions. Vaccinations are given in medical organizations that have a special license for the implementation of this kind of immunization. Moreover, only employees who have undergone special training in the use of immunobiological drugs in order to prevent infectious diseases can administer vaccinations. They also additionally get acquainted with the nuances of vaccination and are aware of all the intricacies of first aid in an emergency or emergency.

Vaccinations for epidemiological indications, which are provided for by the national calendar, must be registered taking into account the nuances of Russian legislation and instructions for their use.

To everyone who is going to give such preventive vaccinations, doctors explain the need for immunization, and also describe the possible consequences and reactions. Naturally, before the vaccination, a person must be examined by a doctor.

What vaccinations are given today according to epidemiological indications?

Today, according to epidemic indications, vaccines against 16 dangerous infectious diseases are included in the national calendar, all in all, as part of prophylaxis in unfavorable circumstances or areas, they are vaccinated for special indications against more than 20 infections (the latter was included recently, this is a coronavirus). In the list of infections, which are vaccinated according to epidemiological indications:

  • Tularemia is a disease that is accompanied by intoxication, fever and damage to the lymph nodes.
  • Plague.
  • Brucellosis is a disease that affects all major systems of the body, from the musculoskeletal to the nervous and reproductive systems.
  • Anthrax.
  • Rabies.
  • Leptospirosis is an acute infection that affects the capillaries and various organs: liver, kidneys, etc. It is manifested by high fever and intoxication.
  • Tick-borne encephalitis.
  • Q fever is an acute infection that affects the lungs and leads to toxicity.
  • Yellow fever is a haemorrhagic disease with a severe course and manifestations of jaundice.
  • Cholera.
  • Typhoid fever is an intestinal disease characterized by intoxication, fevers, and the development of ulcerative pathologies.
  • Shigellosis – bacterial dysentery, which is caused by shigella, proceeds with general intoxication, frequent loose stools with mucus and blood.
  • Viral hepatitis A.
  • Meningococcal infection.
  • Hemophilic infection is an infection caused by the bacillus of the same name, which leads to serious general serious conditions, affects the respiratory system and the central nervous system.
  • Chickenpox.
  • Coronavirus infection.

To whom they put

Epidemiological vaccinations often include the main risk groups for which they are primarily intended. The list of those who primarily need vaccines of such a plan includes doctors working in disadvantaged areas or employed in correcting outbreaks and pandemics, as is now the case with coronavirus. Also, for example, workers in the utilities sector can vaccinate against typhoid fever, especially in dangerous areas, because it can be transmitted through water. Hepatitis A is vaccinated against occupationally at risk of infection, such as service workers and people employed in food service establishments. For each specific disease, lists of those requiring immunization are compiled separately.

Also, vaccinations of such a plan can be recommended when traveling to dangerous areas, for example, some diseases are transmitted by the bites of tropical mosquitoes. Often, according to epidemiological indications, vaccines are put in several stages, an example is vaccine prophylaxis against tuberculosis, which may require three doses of the vaccine. It is better to observe the timing of vaccines for the formation of stronger immunity. But, of course, if a situation arises when it is impossible to administer the vaccination on time (for example, a person is sick), it is worth discussing with the doctor options for correcting the vaccination scheme for epidemic indications in order to obtain the desired level of antibody titer at the exit.

The need for vaccines is determined by the responsible physicians. The scope of risk groups and vaccine formulation priorities may vary depending on the situation.

There are contraindications, it is necessary to consult a doctor

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