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Apr 10, 2021
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Forest hazards. How to behave in the forest so as not to get into trouble?

Forest hazards

During the summer months, the forest becomes one of the most favorite places for recreation. But when going to pick mushrooms, berries or on a picnic, you must always remember that such a harmless outing into nature can cost a person his life.

Have you ever wondered what to do in a situation when a person got lost, turned the wrong way and got stuck in a swamp, or was bitten by a snake?

You will find the answers to these questions in the article. We recommend that you save it to your bookmarks and re-read it before each forest walk.

The article is useful for grade 2 students. On the subject “The World Around”.

1. The likelihood of getting lost

The very first and most common danger in the forest… Even an experienced mushroom picker can turn onto an unfamiliar path and get lost. Every year, thousands of people are lost in the forests, including many mushroom pickers and lovers of forest campsites.

What to do?

Before going into the forest, you need to study the map of the area in advance and tell your loved ones the location where you are going. Choose clothes that are bright so you can be seen more easily.

The phone will not help you, as in most cases you will find yourself cut off from mobile communications, internet and GPS. Therefore, you need to take care of such a probability in advance and take the following things into your backpack:

  • compass;
  • matches;
  • flashlight;
  • whistle;
  • knife;
  • bandage, iodine, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate;
  • mosquito and tick repellent;
  • food and water according to the rule: you go for a day – take provisions for 3 days in advance.

This is the minimum set for survival in the forest in the event that a person gets lost. As soon as you enter the forest, you need to carefully memorize the area around.

If you have a phone, take pictures of identification marks (a fallen tree, a tree stump, a lake, etc.). Once you realize that you are lost, the first step is to calm down.

Panic never leads to anything good. Try to remember which side you came from. Use a knife to make notches in the trees to avoid wandering around.

2. Pliers.

There are many of these blood-sucking insects in our forests. They pose a danger primarily because they are carriers of tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease) and tick-borne encephalitis.

Many people mistakenly believe that ticks sit high in trees and jump on people from above. This is not true. They live in grass and bushes. Mostly they wait for their prey next to well-trodden paths, guided by smell. The tick can sense the victim up to 10 meters away.

The tick clings to clothing and will crawl until it finds a place to bite. Then he injects an anesthetic, so the person does not notice the bite.

Mite

What to do?

The first thing to do is dress appropriately before going out. Clothes should only be made of dense fabrics, pants tucked into long boots, a shirt with long arms, and a scarf tightly tied around the neck. This will reduce the risk of the tick getting under your clothes.

But the most effective way to prevent the consequences of a tick bite is to vaccinate. The first is done in winter, the next one – after 1-3 months. The third – a year later.

After the forest, it is imperative to look around. If you find a tick, there is no need to panic. Not everyone gets infected.

Carefully pull out the parasite with a thread, put the tick in a separate container, visit a doctor and provide the tick for analysis.

3. Snakes

In our forests, only poisonous snakes – vipers – are dangerous. Its bite is painful and is fatal to children, as well as adults if the bite was applied to the neck or head.

Many people suffer from phobia. They are terrified of snakes, so they may not control their reaction to their appearance in the forest. In fact, snakes are also afraid of humans, sometimes even more than we are of them.

They never attack first. This must be remembered so as not to accidentally provoke the snake.

The snake only bites when you step on it or extend your hand. This is how she defends herself. The snake senses the approach of a person in advance and tries to crawl away.

Snakes

What to do?

For this reason, when going into the forest, you should always wear high, thick boots, preferably rubber ones. So that the snake could not bite through them.

Always look under your feet. Use a long stick to scour the area around. Making noise with it, the snake will crawl away in advance.

Having met with a snake, you do not need to make sudden movements. Otherwise, the snake will consider it a danger and may attack. In case of a bite, the first step is to inject the serum.

If it is not at hand, immediately deliver the victim to the nearest medical point. No self-medication (sucking off the poison, soldering with vodka, applying a tourniquet) should not be done.

The bitten part of the body must be kept motionless, the victim should be given as much water or tea, broth as possible. It will be useful to give an antihistamine.

4. This, bees and hornets

Wasps, hornets, and bees are found in the forests. Their bite can cause not only discomfort, but also lead to edema and other complications. In no case should you destroy a hornet’s nest.

Angry wasps will attack the offender with the whole swarm and will painfully take revenge. When a wasp bites, the injured area will swell. But the most painful are hornets.

After them, you may experience: severe pain, swelling, chills, even fever. And also Quincke’s edema, which is considered the most dangerous.

Wasps, bees and hornets

What to do?

When stinging a bee, the first step is to remove the sting. Wasps and hornets do not leave him. Next, wipe the bite site with citric acid or vinegar, and then with an antiseptic.

Drink as much liquid as possible throughout the day. If you feel dizzy, you urgently need to go to the hospital.

5. Wild animals

Before going into the forest, you need to study in advance what animals live in the area and which of them are dangerous.

Wild animals

What to do?

When you meet, you cannot panic and try to escape. You need to stop and stand facing the beast, while slowly moving back and not turning your back. If you went to the nature with tents, then the camp should be set up away from water bodies. Since animals can come at night to drink.

6. Poisonous berries and mushrooms

In addition to edible berries and mushrooms, poisonous ones are also found in the forests. Not all of us are experienced foresters, so we can easily get poisoned. Well, the consequences can be very different – from mild indigestion to death.

Poisonous mushrooms

What to do?

The first and most important rule is not to eat everything if you are not 100% sure about the edibility of a berry or mushroom. You should not eat anything that grows near landfills. Since they accumulate harmful substances in their pulp.

7. Swamp

A very dangerous forest area, characterized by the presence of reeds or moss, which spring underfoot. Other distinctive features of the bog are wild rosemary, sedge, cotton grass, blueberry and cranberry.

Swamp

What to do?

First of all – turn back and try to get around. Or make your way next to the trees. If you find yourself stuck in a swamp alone, then the chance to escape is almost zero.

You should break the nearest shrubs and trees onto branches and throw them at your feet. This will help prevent it from being sucked into the bog.

Having a long stick or pole with you, you need to put it in front of you and gradually pull yourself up to it. Take off your boots, fold the backpack away. Do not get up, but carefully crawl and pull your torso out of the swamp.

8. Surrounded by fire in the burning forest

In the heat of summer, fires can occur. The reasons are very different. In most cases – from careless handling of fire.

Forest fire

What to do?

The first step is to determine the direction and strength of the wind, the spread of fire. You do not need to try to overtake the fire, you need to move along the front line of the fire (across the wind). In order not to suffer from a lack of oxygen, it is advised to bend down to the ground.

9. Uneven terrain

Often the terrain in the forest is uneven; large stones and holes can be hidden under the grass. If you inadvertently step on a stone or sleep in a hole, you can injure your leg. Uneven terrain can also cause falls and, as a result, injuries and fractures.

What to do?

In this case, you need to immediately turn back and come back. In case of severe bruises or fractures, go to the hospital for help.

If a person cannot get up in any way, you need to try to contact the rescue service at 112 from your mobile.

112 is a single rescue number regardless of the mobile operator. It can be dialed from the phone, even if there is no SIM card in it. The call is free.

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