Alexander Vanyukov, the head of the department of X-ray surgery at the 52nd City Clinical Hospital, specifically for MedPotal readers, told what actions can harm the victim during first aid for cardiac arrest, epileptic seizure, burns and when someone choked. Read it and never do that.
If you are not a professional resuscitator, most likely, you rarely encounter situations when someone's life is in danger. All emergency situations occur at the wrong time and in the most inappropriate place for this: for example, a passer-by on the street turned pale and fell, a colleague huddled in an epileptic seizure. In such cases, the golden rule is “do no harm”, so it is very important to avoid these mistakes when providing first aid:
Mistake # 1. Panic and hustle
It is very difficult not to get confused and not to panic when someone falls unconscious. Try to pull yourself together as much as possible. and do not waste time on vanity, which takes up precious time. If the person stops breathing, you have a maximum of five minutes to give first aid before irreversible effects occur.
Mistake # 2. Measure the pulse on the arm
If you see an unconscious person, it is very important to first make sure there is a pulse and breathing. When the blood circulation stops or is disturbed, the body first of all tries to save the most valuable organs - the brain and heart. Therefore, a spasm of all peripheral arteries occurs - on the arms and legs. The only place where we can feel the pulse is the carotid artery.that goes to the brain.
How do I find her? There is a muscle on the neck that runs from the corner of the lower jaw downward, and the carotid artery runs along its front edge. It is necessary to put four fingers to this place and if you feel confident shocks, then there is a pulse. This is a rather large artery, it is impossible to be mistaken.
Mistake number 3. Shout to the crowd "call an ambulance!"
Each resuscitator has a lot of unfunny stories in stock, when none of the dozens of eyewitnesses called emergency services, because everyone was sure that someone else had done it. Ask to call an ambulance for a specific person and be sure to ask again if he did it. If this is necessary (for example, everything happens in the subway), send him to meet the doctors.
Mistake # 4. Administer any medication to the victim
Even if the victim has insulin or nitroglycerin in his pocket, you cannot give anything before the ambulance arrives, otherwise it will be difficult for doctors to figure it out. And please do not put anything into the mouth of an unconscious or semi-conscious person. If you suspect that an unconscious person is diabetic, you do not need to try to shove or pour something sweet into his mouth, he may suffocate.
Mistake # 5. Doing an indirect heart massage is gentle and delicate
If the victim has no pulse or breathing, it is necessary to start an indirect heart massage, which should "push" the blood circulation. The volume of the heart chamber of the left ventricle is very small: from 50 to 150 milliliters, circulating blood - 5 liters. In order to bring oxygenated blood to the brain, you need to act very decisively, since the time window during which irreversible consequences can be avoided is very small.
• Place the base of one hand in the middle of the victim's chest. After that, both hands must be taken either in the "lock" or crosswise. But not with bent fingers!
• Begin vigorously and forcefully to make pressing movements, not less than 40 strokes per minute. Don't be afraid to act harshly or even rudely.
• Don't stop if you've broken the victim's ribs - in such cases, a characteristic sound is heard, similar to the crunching of foam. Believe me, this will not lead to fatal consequences, your main task now is to save your brain and heart.
Mistake # 6. Don't ask for help from others
An indirect cardiac massage is a huge effort, and even if you are very physically fit, you will soon get tired and this will affect the effectiveness of resuscitation measures. Call someone specific from the crowd of onlookers, explain how to proceed. If you are confident in your abilities, change it after ten minutes or let it continue. But do not bring yourself to complete physical exhaustion!
Mistake # 7. Do mouth-to-mouth breathing
Until recently, artificial respiration was the gold standard for first aid, even for non-professional rescuers. But if you are not an experienced doctor, this is not required of you. Few people manage to make mouth-to-mouth breathing effectively enough - most people will be prevented by elementary disgust. In addition, studies in Europe have shown that these measures have no effect on the survival of patients with cardiac arrest.
Mistake number 8. Unclenching teeth and sticking hard objects to the epileptic
This is one of the most dangerous first aid myths that has been firmly entrenched for decades. Allegedly, during an epileptic seizure, the tongue can sink into the larynx and the person suffocates, so it was recommended to unclench his teeth and insert a stick into his mouth. The most desperate even tried to pin their tongue with a safety pin to the collar. You do not need to do this: during a seizure, a powerful spasm occurs in all muscles, including the tongue, which becomes very hard.
The best thing you can do for someone with an epileptic seizure is to leave them alone. Unless you hold your head so that it doesn't hit too hard. After the attack is over, do not try to seat the victim or take away: in this state, the person usually falls asleep instantly. Give him a rest and call an ambulance, where the victim will be stabilized in 2-3 hours.
Mistake number 9. Treat burns with oil, potassium permanganate, or urine
You will only make it worse, believe me. In case of burns, it is necessary to water the affected area with cold running water until rigor mortis is complete. This will help prevent heat energy from spreading through the tissues. The deeper the burn penetrates, the stronger the consequences will be.
Mistake number 10. Pound on the back of the one who choked
Someone around choked on food and coughed violently? Excellent, most likely, nothing threatens his life: he can breathe, clears his throat and spits everything out himself. Often in such cases, people cannot breathe simply because they are very frightened.
But if a person does not cough, suffocates, it is necessary to act urgently. In no case should you slap the victim on the back, he may choke even harder. Try to inspect the victim's mouth and try to pull out a piece of food or foreign objects yourself. If you are not sure that you can extract it, use the Heimlich method:
• Make a fist so that the thumb is between the chest and the victim's navel;
• Place the open palm of the other hand on top of the fist and make several powerful jerks so that the volume of air in the diaphragm "pushes" the foreign object.
If the child chokes, turn him over by the legs or lay him on his knee and pat him on the back. Be sure to calm him down if he panics.