Additive technologies is a relatively new specialty; Russian colleges and universities have been preparing students since 2017-2018. What is this profession, how much is it in demand and what are the prospects for young graduates?
Duration of preparation
Training of future specialists is carried out on the basis of:
- basic general education (9 classes);
- complete general education (11 classes);
- secondary vocational education.
Education is conducted in colleges (specialty code – 15.02.09). Its duration is 3 years 10 months and 2 years 10 months. Upon graduation, graduates are awarded the qualification of a technician-technologist.
They can continue their studies at universities and get a bachelor’s degree. Bachelor’s programs are designed for 4 years. The code of the specialty “Additive Technologies” in universities is 2.27.03.05.
Description of the direction
Additive technologies are an innovative way of producing goods of different industrial groups by the method of layer-by-layer growth of raw materials. A 3D printer is the most famous example of a device that works according to the described principle.
Materials, methods of application may differ, but in each case, products are made according to the same principle – layer-by-layer build-up. The technologists take plastic, polycarbonate, concrete, metal, living cells – any materials as a basis.
The beginning of the use of additive technologies was a breakthrough for modern industry and opened up additional opportunities. Today they are used in various industries:
- design and architecture;
- mechanical engineering;
- research work;
- electrical engineering;
- aviation industry.
The most famous use case is a 3D printer. The potential of this area is strong: over the years, its popularity will gain momentum, and the scope of application will expand. Labor market experts predict a high demand for specialists in additive technologies.
The reason for the growing popularity lies in their features: the introduction of layer-by-layer build-up reduces the cost of manufacturing a product and speeds up the process of its production. At the same time, the quality of the final product is not only not lost, but also increased.
Periodically, the media publishes news about the creation of bionic prostheses, human organs for transplantation, clothing, household items, which have one thing in common – they are all printed on 3D printers. In the future, printing of cars, houses and other capital construction projects will become widespread.
Innovation requires good technical and practical knowledge of the subject, therefore, student preparation programs include a maximum of applied disciplines.
In colleges and universities, disciplines are divided into several modules so that each direction is worked out thoroughly, without gaps in education.
The training course for a technician and process engineer includes dozens of special subjects, including:
- Technical drawing – from thinking through a composition to layout and choosing fonts.
- Industrial design, its trends and prospects.
- Practical industrial design, during which each student will work on his own project, calculate it, create a paper layout.
- Basics of modeling from Lego, other tools, including using simple 3D printing.
- Three-dimensional graphics and the study of software, practical skills in its use.
- Study of different 3D technologies, their differences, applications.
- Pre-press preparation of 3D models.
- Digitization of real objects.
- Creation of project presentations in various programs, including with virtual reality glasses.
- In-depth study of vector graphics and other graphics editors.
- Modeling digital sculptures.
- Organization of production and their optimization.
- Working with technology startups, engineering analysis.
- Off-site practical training in factories using additive technologies.
- An internship at the enterprise with possible further employment.
The duties of a specialist include:
Production of products by layer-by-layer building… It includes:
- organization of preparatory activities, raw materials;
- production launch and control over its progress;
- preparation of production technical documentation, required reporting.
Work on the technological process of production… This includes:
- preparation of 3D models of parts, components;
- development of a 3D printing control program;
- development of individual technological stages;
- introduction of new technology into production;
- creation of new and modernization of existing production chains in additive ways.
Management of additive manufacturing. It implies administrative functions:
- organization of work with the involvement of employees and teams of contractors;
- work management, including timely provision of specialists with the necessary resources;
- maintenance of technical documentation and reporting.
What to work with?
A diploma in additive technologies allows you to engage in:
- 3D modeling and computer design.
- Operation and maintenance of additive machines.
- Industrial design.
- Engineering design.
- Final processing of objects made using additive technologies.
- Optimization of production using digital technologies.
- Development and introduction of new products to the consumer market.
The salary of a certified technician without work experience is 35-45 thousand rubles. In the future, it will grow.
Required skills and competencies
The future additive engineer must:
- know materials science;
- perfectly own specialized software and use its functionality in full;
- know the basics of business planning;
- be able to present your project, clearly formulating the ultimate goal, calculating the costs and production costs;
- think creatively, look for new interesting solutions;
- mentally build the entire technological chain;
- be able to accurately and quickly select materials, tools, and other resources for project implementation.
A technologist must be prepared for the fact that his innovative projects and ideas are not in demand in all industries. In Russia, this direction is only gaining momentum – the share of domestic enterprises using it does not exceed 1.5% in the total volume of the world market. Experts predict its further development.
Germany, America and China hold the world leadership. Businessmen and investors from these countries willingly cooperate with promising Russian specialists, offering them decent conditions and wages.
You can get a specialty in educational institutions of a technical profile:
- Moscow Polytechnic University;
- St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. Peter the Great;
- Moscow State University. Bauman;
- Tomsk Polytechnic;
- Moscow Technological University “STANKIN”;
- Polytechnic College № 8 named after Pavlova;
- College of Entrepreneurship No. 11 in Moscow.
Results of using the method of layer-by-layer synthesis
Mechanical engineering. The first prototype of a three-dimensional car with a speed of 112 km / h from Kor Ecologic. The body and parts for the vehicle were printed on a 3D printer.
LMSD Swim is a car that the manufacturer claims to be “smart and safe”. The developers presented it in the fall of 2015. The vehicle is 2/3 printed on the printer. For its manufacture, innovative materials were used – ABS plastic and carbon fiber.
Construction. An object, the traditional construction of which takes 2-3 years, can be built in 15-20 days using construction 3D printing. Design engineers from Dubai proved this when they created the Office of the Future in 2016.
They printed a modular building 6 meters high, 36 meters long and 12 meters wide. The process took 17 days, 2 more days were required for the installation. Construction costs were $ 140,000. The facility is fully operational.
The Lewis Grand Hotel in the Philippines is also built using additive printing. The author of the project was the Russian Andrey Rudenko.
Medicine. Tomographic examination with high-precision printing of the diseased organ and precise location of pathology is one of the most widespread and demanded results of innovation implementation. Thanks to this type of diagnostics and tomographic images, the quality of treatment was improved significantly, and the mortality rate of patients was reduced.
Artificial organ transplantation will soon become a daily reality. Today, in medical laboratories, human skin is successfully grown for subsequent transplantation, bone and cartilage tissue.
The introduction of technologies makes it possible to print disposable sterile instruments, to produce high-quality and accurate implants, dental crowns, orthopedic prostheses.
Large pharmaceutical companies are already testing pills and other drugs using artificial intelligence. This will reduce the number of side effects, recovery time, and reduce the likelihood of relapses.