Space still attracts the attention of many people. Astronomers make sensational discoveries every year, and more and more astonishing new ones appear. interesting facts about space…
At the same time, the space theme is still the subject of speculation. And knowledge of verified information will help you not to get lost in the information field.
We have prepared for you a selection of 25 amazing and proven facts about space and astronauts.
1. The first woman in outer space.
The first earthling to go into outer space is well known – this is Alexei Leonov. But the first woman was in the shadow of the pioneer. She was Svetlana Savitskaya. She went into open space together with Vladimir Dzhanibekov on July 25, 1984 from the Soyuz T-12 spacecraft. In total, to date, people have spent more than 100 man-days in outer space.
2. Venus rotates very slowly around its axis
Venus takes 243 Earth days to complete a revolution around its axis. And at the same time, it takes only 225 days to completely pass the circumsolar orbit. This means that the day on Venus depends on the revolution around the sun, and not on the revolution around its axis, as on Earth.
3. Representatives of 35 countries of the world visited the Earth’s orbit.
Among them are the no longer existing Czechoslovakia and the GDR, as well as Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Cuba, Mongolia, India, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Afghanistan, South Africa, Malaysia and others.
4. The deceased conquerors of space.
This list includes only astronauts who died either during the flight or during full training. 1967 to 2003 24 people died in various incidents (18 of them during flights). Most of the cosmonauts are from the USSR and the USA. The accidents were associated with flights of the Soyuz-1 and Soyuz-11 spacecraft, the Challenger and Columbia shuttles.
5. The longest duration of space flights.
The absolute record belongs to the Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka. He spent 878 days in space (that is, almost 2.5 years). This is how much time he has spent in total for five space flights since 2015.
Peggy Whitson, an American, became the female record holder. She stayed in space for almost two years – 665 days (over three flights).
6. A man buried on the moon.
One of the founders of astrogeology, Eugene Shoemaker, bequeathed to bury himself on the moon. The discoverer of comet Shoemaker-Levy died in 1997 in a car accident.
The following year, some of his ashes were sent to the Lunar Prospector orbiter. After his fall to the lunar surface in 1999, Shoemaker became the only person buried there.
7. Different standards of space altitude.
The International Aviation Federation calls space flight at an altitude of 100 km. And the US Air Force believes that it starts below – from about 80 km (from 50 miles).
In Russia, space status is assigned only to orbital flight. Moreover, to complete a full-fledged space flight, the aircraft must make at least one revolution around the Earth.
8. Almost all the mass of the solar system falls on the sun.
According to scientific data, 99% of the mass of the solar system is the mass of the sun. It has a mass of 332.9 thousand times the mass of the Earth and is 1.9891 · 10³⁰ kg.
9. The first space tourist (de facto).
It was the Japanese journalist Toyohiro Akiyama. On December 2, 1990, Soyuz TM-11 delivered it to the Mir station. Akiyama represented TBS, which has invested at least $ 25 million in his space travel (other sources cite up to $ 37 million).
For a week in orbit, Akiyama conducted several live broadcasts, and also set up experiments on tree frogs.
10. The mass of neutron stars is comparable to the mass of the Sun, and the radius is thousands of times smaller.
This is due to the fact that the average density of their substance is several times higher than the density of the atomic nucleus. In addition, neutron stars have a very high axial rotation speed – up to several hundred revolutions per second.
11. The difference in the speeds of solar particles.
A ray of light overcomes the distance from the Sun to the Earth quickly – in 8 minutes. At the same time, everything is different for a photon (a quantum of electromagnetic radiation) inside the Sun. From the core of the star to the outer layer, these particles move for hundreds of thousands of Earth years.
12. Over the decades, thousands of tons of debris have accumulated in space.
Space debris is considered unnecessary stages and upper stages of launch vehicles, various mechanical parts accompanying spacecraft launches, etc.
According to experts, more than 8 thousand such objects move around the Earth in orbits. And in low earth orbits – 220 thousand objects with a total mass of up to 5 thousand tons.
13. Thousands of tons of cosmic dust fall to the Earth Where does the dust come from?
It is separated from asteroids, comets, from bodies from the Kuiper belt, and also partially from interstellar dust. According to experts, from 60 to 100 tons of the smallest particles fall on the Earth every day.
Their size ranges from a few molecules to 0.2 micrometers. And a year it turns out neither more nor less than 25-40 thousand tons.
14. The exoplanet HD189733b is constantly raining glass.
The cosmic body is larger than Jupiter and is a gas giant. Exoplanets are objects outside the solar system. HD189733b is located 63 light years from Earth in the planetary system closest to Earth.
Temperatures there can go up to 1000 ° C. And in the atmosphere, it is believed that it rains from glass at a wind speed of 7000 km / h.
15. Planets are discovered, presumably having water.
During the period from 2010 to 2020. the number of known exoplanets at the expense of the Kepler telescope has increased almost 10 times – up to 4104. And of all this mass, only a few dozen belong to the “potentially habitable”.
On these exoplanets, due to the set temperature, there may be liquid water on the surface.
16. Jupiter can accommodate one thousand of the Earth planets.
The mass of the largest planet in the solar system is 1.8986⋅1027 kg, and the equatorial radius is 71,492 km. While the mass of the Earth is 5.9726⋅1024 kg, and the equatorial radius is 6378 km.
17. There is water on the moon.
In the past decade, researchers have found water in the circumpolar craters of the Earth’s satellite. At first, it turned out that almost a quarter of Shackleton crater was occupied by ice (under a layer of regalite).
However, water on the Moon cannot be in a liquid state. And ice in craters does not evaporate just because the sun’s rays do not get there. 100 billion tons of water on the moon – so much explored today.
18. Diamond planet for $ 26.9 nonillion.
Planet-“diamond” 55 Cancri is included in the constellation of Cancer. It is one of the five planets of the star 55, which is 40 light-years from Earth.
The mass of the planet 55 Cancri is twice the mass of the Earth, and it is located so close to its star that the temperature on its surface reaches 1.6 thousand degrees. Therefore, the calculation of the cost is purely arbitrary and, of course, it will not work to use these diamonds.
19. If there is no moon, some of the inhabitants of the seas will die out.
The lunar phases affect the sea surface. The moon, passing over the Earth, as if pulls the water masses with it, creating the ebb and flow. As you know, there are marine animals, the biological cycle of which is associated with this natural phenomenon. Therefore, without the Moon and its influence on the Earth, they would have perished.
20. The moon leaves the earth’s orbit.
The satellite of the Earth is slowly but surely leaving us. The distance increases at a slow rate – only about 38 mm per year. The moon was 44 thousand km closer to the Earth about 1.5 billion years ago. And after removal, after thousands of years, it will again begin to approach the Earth.
21. In 2019, the first “photo” of a black hole was taken.
A snapshot of a black hole from the center of the galaxy Messier 87 scattered all over the media. The galaxy is located 54 million light years from Earth. The image was created thanks to the Event Horizon Telescope research project. It brings together eight telescopes around the world.
22. Winds on Venus blow at a speed of 500 km / h.
A feature of the planet’s atmosphere in high density. It contains carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid. Moreover, they are heated to extremely high temperatures. And the explanation for the high wind speed is that the air shell of Venus is 60 times faster than the planet’s rotation speed.
23. Light from a group of galaxies traveled to the Earth for over 12 billion years.
In 2011, scientists found a growing group of galaxies (called COSMOS-AzTEC3). Their rays flew to our planet for over 12 billion years. Experts are confident that such “protoclusters” eventually became modern clusters of galaxies with mutual gravity.
24. A bacterium from Earth could live on the Moon for 2.5 years.
The Surveyor-3 spacecraft has been exploring the moon for 2.5 years. After his return, a living microorganism was found on the video camera. It turned out to be an aerobic bacterium Streptococcus mitis that lives on the human body.
However, the assumption that the bacterium lived on the moon for 2.5 years is disputed. For example, she could get on camera after returning to Earth.
25. The diameter of our Galaxy is a number with eighteen zeros.
1 quintillion km or 100 thousand light years or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 km is the diameter of the Milky Way. The galaxy includes up to 400 billion stars.
And the total mass is better represented in comparison. Together with all black holes, dark matter and other invisible objects, the mass of the Milky Way is equivalent to 3 trillion times the mass of a star called the Sun.
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